Electronics and Communication Technologies
Faculty: FEECAbbreviation: DKA-EKTAcad. year: 2022/2023
Type of study programme: Doctoral
Study programme code: P0714D060010
Degree awarded: Ph.D.
Language of instruction: English
Tuition Fees: 2500 EUR/academic year for EU students, 2500 EUR/academic year for non-EU students
Accreditation: 28.5.2019 - 27.5.2029
Mode of study
Standard study length
Fields of education
|Electrical Engineering||Without thematic area||100|
Provide doctoral education to graduates of a master's degree in electronics and communication technologies. To deepen students' theoretical knowledge in selected parts of mathematics and physics and to give them the necessary knowledge and practical skills in applied informatics and computer science. To teach them the methods of scientific work.
The Ph.D. graduate will be able to solve scientific and complex technical problems in the field of electronics and communications. Graduates of the doctoral program "Electronics and Communication Technologies" will be competent to work in the field of electronics and communication technology as scientists and researchers in fundamental or applied research, as high-specialists in development, design, and construction in many R&D institutions, electrical and electronic manufacturing companies and producers and users of communication systems and devices, where they will be able to creatively use modern computer, communication, and measurement technique.
The doctors are able to solve independently scientific and complex engineering tasks in the area of electronics and communications. Thanks to the high-quality theoretical education and specialization in the study program, graduates of doctoral studies are sought as specialists in in the area of electronic engineering and communications. Graduates of the doctoral program will be able to work in the field of electronics and communications technology as researchers in fundamental or applied research, as specialists in development, design and construction in various research and development institutions, electrotechnical and electronic manufacturing companies, where they will be able to creative exploit modern computing, communication and measuring technologies.
Doctoral studies are carried out in agreement with the individual study plan, which will prepare supervisor together with the doctoral student at the beginning of the study. The individual study plan specifies all the duties given by the BUT Study and Examination Rules, which the doctoral student must fulfill to finish his study successfully. These duties are scheduled into entire the study period. They are classified by points and their fulfilment is checked at fixed deadlines. The student enrolls and performs examination from compulsory subjects (Modern digital wireless communication, Modern electronic circuit design), at least from two compulsory-elective subjects aimed at the dissertation area, and at least from two optional courses such as English for PhD students, Solutions for Innovative Entries, Scientific Publishing from A to Z).
The students may enroll for the state exam only if all the examinations specified in his/her individual study plan have been completed. Before the state exam, the student prepares a short version of dissertation thesis describing in detail the aims of the thesis, state of the art in the area of dissertation, eventually the properties of methods which are assumed to be applied in the research topics solution. The defense of the short version of thesis, which is reviewed, is the first part of the state exam. In the next part of the exam the student has to prove deep theoretical and practical knowledges in the field of electrical engineering, electronics, communication techniques, fundamental theory of circuits and electromagnetic field, signal processing, antenna and high-frequency techniques. The state exam is oral and, in addition to the discussion on the dissertation thesis, it also consists of areas related to compulsory and compulsory elective courses.
The student can ask for the dissertation defense after successful passing the state exam and after fulfilling all conditions for termination of studies such as participation in teaching, scientific and professional activities (creative activities), and a study or a work stay at a foreign institution no shorter than one month, or participation in an international project.
Study plan creation
The doctoral studies of a student follow the Individual Study Plan (ISP), which is defined by the supervisor and the student at the beginning of the study period. The ISP is obligatory for the student, and specifies all duties being consistent with the Study and Examination Rules of BUT, which the student must successfully fulfill by the end of the study period. The duties are distributed throughout the whole study period, scored by credits/points and checked in defined dates. The current point evaluation of all activities of the student is summarized in the “Total point rating of doctoral student” document and is part of the ISP. At the beginning of the next study year the supervisor highlights eventual changes in ISP. By October, 15 of each study year the student submits the printed and signed ISP to Science Department of the faculty to check and archive.
Within the first four semesters the student passes the exams of compulsory, optional-specialized and/or optional-general courses to fulfill the score limit in Study area, and concurrently the student significantly deals with the study and analysis of the knowledge specific for the field defined by the dissertation thesis theme and also continuously deals with publishing these observations and own results. In the follow-up semesters the student focuses already more to the research and development that is linked to the dissertation thesis topic and to publishing the reached results and compilation of the dissertation thesis.
By the end of the second year of studies the student passes the Doctor State Exam, where the student proves the wide overview and deep knowledge in the field linked to the dissertation thesis topic. The student must apply for this exam by April, 30 in the second year of studies. Before the Doctor State Exam the student must successfully pass the exam from English language course.
In the third and fourth year of studies the student deals with the required research activities, publishes the reached results and compiles the dissertation thesis. As part of the study duties is also completing a study period at an abroad institution or participation on an international research project with results being published or presented in abroad or another form of direct participation of the student on an international cooperation activity, which must be proved by the date of submitting the dissertation thesis.
By the end of the winter term in the fourth year of study the students submit the elaborated dissertation thesis to the supervisor, who scores this elaborate. The final dissertation thesis is expected to be submitted by the student by the end of the fourth year of the studies.
In full-time study form, during the study period the student is obliged to pass a pedagogical practice, i.e. participate in the education process. The participation of the student in the pedagogical activities is part of his/her research preparations. By the pedagogical practice the student gains experience in passing the knowledge and improves the presentation skills. The pedagogical practice load (exercises, laboratories, project supervision etc.) of the student is specified by the head of the department based on the agreement with the student’s supervisor. The duty of pedagogical practice does not apply to students-payers and combined study program students. The involvement of the student in the education process within the pedagogical practice is confirmed by the supervisor in the Information System of the university.
Issued topics of Doctoral Study Program
- Approximate symbolic analysis of large systems
Symbolic analysis allows to describe the behavior of an electronic circuit in the form of a symbolic expression. The project is focused on generating sufficiently simple and interpretable expressions that can be used by circuit designers. Due to the exponential growth of the expression complexity, the interpretability of exact expressions is lost even for circuits containing three transistors. An interesting way to get smaller expressions is to loosen accuracy to achieve simplicity, i.e. to use approximate symbolic analysis . The method mimics designer's work, when they simplify the circuit model by omitting negligible phenomena (e.g. by omitting stray-capacitance currents on low frequencies, etc.). Despite the past development, there is still no widely accepted method of approximate symbolic analysis applicable to the circuits of practical size. Our previous results show a great potential of methods based on circuit model simplification (Simplification Before Generation class - SBG) . During the first phase the research effort will be focused on improving the process of identification of negligible terms based on the Corner Analysis for checking the simplified expression validity on a certain interval of component parameters. The process should be modified to allow the simplification control based on inequalities following from typical device parameters or designer’s previous knowledge. The further modification of SBG will be aimed at suppressing mathematical nature of existing algorithms, which try to eliminate as many insignificant symbolic terms as possible, which results in problematic interpretability of obtained expressions . The solution should be based on a graph-transformation method  and techniques of predictive modeling . A potential candidate should have knowledge of electronic circuit theory, numerical mathematics and graph theory. Furthermore, knowledge of programming (C/C++, Python) is required, because it is expected that the developed methods will be implemented in the symbolic simulator SNAP. References  M. Fakhfakh, E. Tlelo-Cuautle, F. V. Fernández, Design of Analog Circuits through Symbolic Analysis, Bentham Science, 2012.  Z. Kolka, M. Vlk, M. Horák, “Topology Reduction for Approximate Symbolic Analysis,” Radioengineering, 2011, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 252-256.  G. Shi, “Topological Approach to Symbolic Pole–Zero Extraction Incorporating Design Knowledge,” IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, vol. 36, no. 11, pp. 1765-1778, Nov. 2017.  D. Biolek, Z. Kolka, V. Biolková, Z. Biolek, S. Kvatinsky, “(V)TEAM for SPICE Simulation of Memristive Devices With Improved Numerical Performance,” IEEE Access, 2021, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 30242-30255.
Tutor: Kolka Zdeněk, prof. Dr. Ing.
- Birdcage RF coil for MRI
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has gained increased interest as a diagnostic and research imaging technique. It offers very good soft tissue contrast at high spatial and temporal resolution . MRI is able to move beyond anatomical imaging and it also allows visualizing metabolic functions and chemical processes. Basic components for MRI examination are MRI RF coils which are used for excitation or reception of the magnetic resonance signal. This project is focused on the research of a birdcage RF coil for MRI -. The main attention is concentrated on the improvement of magnetic field homogeneity in the transmission mode and signal to noise ratio in the receiving mode of a birdcage coil -. To manage this goal, extensive full-wave modeling and optimization in commercial software (e.g. CST Studio Suite or ANSYS HFSS) has to be carried considering relevant numerical phantoms. It is expected that a coil will be equipped by a self-adaptive technique allowing its adaptation for desired operating frequency band. As a result, a novel concept of a birdcage RF coil should be proposed. References  B. Gruber.; M. Froeling; T. Leiner; D. W. J. Klomp. RF coils: A practical guide for nonphysicists. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 2018, vol. 48, no. 3, p. 590–604.  S. F. Ahmad; Y.C Kim; I. C. Choi; H. D. Kim. Recent Progress in Birdcage RF Coil Technology for MRI System. Diagnostics. 2020, vol. 10, no.12.  C.E. Hayes; W. A. Edelstein; J.F. Schenck; O. M. Mueller; M. Eash, An efficient, highly homogeneous radiofrequency coil for whole body NMR imaging at 1.5T. Journal of Magnetic Resonance. 1985, vol. 63, p. 622–628.  M. Vít; M. Burian; Z. Berková; J. Láčík; O. Sedláček; R. Hoogenboom; Z. Raida; D. Jirák, A broad tuneable birdcage coil for mouse 1H/19F MR applications. Journal of Magnetic Resonance, 2021, vol. 329, no. 1.
- Deep Learning Based Lossy Compression for 180°/360° Images
Nowadays, popularity of 180°/360° images enabling to capture a panoramic (or omnidirectional) view of an environment has been rapidly increasing in many fields (e.g. industry and medicine) . Such pictures with many characteristics result in high resolution leading to acquisition, transmission and storing based problems. Hence, coding algorithms with appropriate settings to compress the image content are necessary. Emerging still image compression algorithms, like JPEG XL, HEIF and AVIF, were not originally developed for compression of omnidirectional images. In recent years a comprehensive investigation into the possibility of using deep learning (DL) techniques for efficient image compression can be witnessed . This work focuses on the development of DL-based lossy image compression technique for 180°/360° images. Attention should be devoted to study of factors having the highest influence on the quality of the compressed images in such format. Among others, it is expected that different objective and subjective approaches ,  will be used for this purpose. The DL-based compression algorithm should find the tradeoff between complexity, accuracy and efficiency (e.g. time for the training) . Following the development of DL-based compression technique, its compression performance should be assessed and compared to existing solutions. It is assumed that publicly available  and self-created dataset will be used for training the DL-based architectures. The DL algorithm (or algoritms) is expected to be programmed in Python using available libraries (PyTorch, Keras, TensorFlow) and should be publicly available for research community.  L. Polak, J. Kufa and T. Kratochvil, “On the Compression Performance of HEVC, VP9 and AV1 Encoders for Virtual Reality Videos,” in Proc. Of Int. Symp. Of BMSB 2020, Oct. 2020, pp. 1-5. DOI: 10.1109/BMSB49480.2020.9379878  J. Ascenso et al. "Learning-based image coding: early solutions reviewing and subjective quality evaluation," Optics, Photonics and Digital Technologies for Imaging Applications VI. Vol. 11353. International Society for Optics and Photonics, Apr. 2020. DOI: 10.1117/12.2555368  J. Gutiérrez et al., “Toolbox and dataset for the development of saliency and scanpath models for omnidirectional/360° still images,” Signal Processing: Image Communication, vol. 69, pp. 35-42, Nov. 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.image.2018.05.003
- Deep Learning Based Prediction of Quality of Experience for Virtual Reality Videos
Nowadays, interest about technology of virtual reality (VR) in multimedia systems is continuously increasing. In such systems, ensuring of excellent Quality of Experience (QoE) for VR videos (180 and 360-degree) will become a very important task in the future . QoE can be influenced by many factors (e.g. compression algorithms, viewing conditions). Definition and prediction of these factors for VR videos become one of the key questions to research. Deep learning (DL) based technologies can be a suitable candidate to address this challenge . This work focuses on the development of DL-based algorithm to predict QoE for VR videos. Attention should be devoted to study of factors having the highest influence on the QoE of VR videos. Among others, it is expected that different objective and subjective approaches  will be used for this purpose. The DL-based prediction algorithm should find the tradeoff between complexity, accuracy and efficiency (e.g. time for the training) . Accuracy of the proposed DL-based prediction mechanism should be compared with conventional ones and evaluated in detail. The DL algorithm (or algorithms) is expected to be programmed in Python using available libraries (PyTorch, Keras, TensorFlow) and should be publicly available for research community.  L. Polak, J. Kufa and T. Kratochvil, “On the Compression Performance of HEVC, VP9 and AV1 Encoders for Virtual Reality Videos,” in Proc. Of Int. Symp. Of BMSB 2020, Oct. 2020, pp. 1-5. DOI: 10.1109/BMSB49480.2020.9379878  Ch.-F. Hsu, T.-H. Hung and Ch.-H. Hsu, “Optimizing Immersive Video Coding Configurations Using Deep Learning: A Case Study on TMIV,” ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications, and Applications, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 1-25, Jan. 2022. DOI: 10.1145/3471191  X. Feng, Y. Liu and S. Wei, "LiveDeep: Online Viewport Prediction for Live Virtual Reality Streaming Using Lifelong Deep Learning," in Proc. of Conf. on VR, March 2020, pp. 800-808. DOI: 10.1109/VR46266.2020.00104
- Deep Learning for Classification of Coexistence of Wireless Communication Systems
In the future, different wireless communication systems can share common radiofrequency (RF) bands. Such a so called coexistence of these systems can be critical (a partial or full loss of wireless services, provided by communication systems) or non-critical (communication systems can coexist without significant performance degradation) -. Hence, predicting and coordinating the coexistence of these systems will be an important task. Deep learning (DL) based technologies can be a suitable candidate to address such challenges . This work focuses on the development of DL-based algorithm for classification of coexistence scenarios between different wireless communication systems in terms of RF signals. Attention should be devoted to the study of parameters having the highest influence on the character of the interfering signal (e.g. idle signal, modulation scheme, type of modulation). Many parameters enable the DL-based architectures to learn more features from the data . Hence, the DL algorithm must find tradeoff between complexity, accuracy and efficiency. It is assumed that publicly available and self-created dataset will be used for training the DL-based architectures. The DL algorithm (or algorithms) is expected to be programmed in Python using available libraries (PyTorch, Keras, TensorFlow) and should be publicly available for research community.  Y. Han, E. Ekici, H. Kremo and O. Altintas, “Spectrum sharing methods for the coexistence of multiple RF systems: A survey,” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 53, pp. 53-78, Dec. 2016. DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2016.09.009  A. M. Voicu, L. Simić and M. Petrova, "Survey of Spectrum Sharing for Inter-Technology Coexistence," IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 1112-1144, Secondquarter 2019, DOI: 10.1109/COMST.2018.2882308  L. Polak and J. Milos, “Performance analysis of LoRa in the 2.4 GHz ISM band: coexistence issues with Wi-Fi,” Telecommunication Systems, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 299-309, July 2020. DOI: 10.1007/s11235-020-00658-w  Y. Shi, K. Davaslioglu, Y. E. Sagduyu, W. C. Headley, M. Fowler and G. Green, "Deep Learning for RF Signal Classification in Unknown and Dynamic Spectrum Environments," In Proc of. Int. Symp. DySPAN, Nov. 2019, pp. 1-10, DOI: 10.1109/DySPAN.2019.8935684  K. Pijackova and T. Gotthans, "Radio Modulation Classification Using Deep Learning Architectures," In Proc of. 31st Int. Conf. Radioelektronika, Apr. 2021, pp. 1-5, DOI: 10.1109/RADIOELEKTRONIKA52220.2021.9420195
- Electromagnetic analysis of time-varying metasurfaces
The space-time electromagnetic behavior of metasurfaces whose constitutive properties are time-invariant has been extensively studied and is well understood. The demanding objectives of 6G communications, however, call for the use of unconventional intelligent technologies that would overcome physical bounds of standard time-invariant systems. A promising hardware technology to achieve the goal is the reconfigurable intelligent metasurface whose electromagnetic properties vary in response to time-varying environments. As the state-of-the-art electromagnetic modeling approaches do not allow its efficient analysis, the PhD research will yield fundamentally new computational and analytical approaches to address the issue, thereby providing key enablers for designing truly intelligent time-varying metasurfaces. Owing to their unrivalled computational efficiency, particular attention will be paid to analytical solutions and time-domain integral equation approaches based on the Cagniard-DeHoop technique.
- Electromagnetic cloaks
Electromagnetic cloaks are structures that aim to reduce the reflectivity of the objects that surround or directly make them invisible. The theory of transformation electromagnetics and artificial materials are often exploited for their design , . This project is focused on the research of electromagnetic cloaks of desired properties. The main attention should be concentrated on the development of methods for the design of artificial materials/surfaces with required electromagnetic properties. The outputs of the project should find application in the fields of antenna technology, security or defence applications -. After studying the current state of the art, the attention should be concentrated on the development of methods for the design of artificial materials/surfaces with the required electromagnetic properties based on machine learning approaches. For this part of the solution, the use of commercial software allowing full-wave modelling (e.g. CST Studio Suite, ANSYS HFSS) and the MATLAB program is assumed. Consequently, the newly created methods will be used for the design of selected reference structures whose properties will be verified experimentally. References  D. Kwon; D. H. Werner, Transformation Electromagnetics: An Overview of the Theory and Applications. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 2010, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 24-46.  D. H. Werner; D. Kwon, Transformation Electromagnetics and Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications. Springer, London, 2014.  G. Moreno et al., Wideband Elliptical Metasurface Cloaks in Printed Antenna Technology. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2018, vol. 66, no. 7, pp. 3512-3525.
- Human activity monitoring from 5G/6G or new generation WiFi transmissions
Monitoring of user activities using cameras or specialized radar-based equipment has found its use e.g. for monitoring of elderly people or to control the electronic entertainment equipment. The use of such approaches for large-scale monitoring in public spaces is problematic due to the privacy violation and need for specialized hardware. The aim of this PhD project is to investigate the influence of humans and their activities (e.g. pedestrians, bikers) on the statistical properties of millimeter-wave or sub-THz wireless channels in delay-Doppler domain and to search for suitable machine learning method able to classify the nature of user activities in scenarios of several users performing simultaneously a variety of distinct tasks. The investigated methods will be based on the processing of 5G New Radio, eventually 6G signals and should not require any specialized waveforms nor hardware. This PhD project includes both the experimental work with the mm-wave test-bed as well as data processing using state-of-the-art machine learning methods. There is an ongoing cooperation of the BUT group with several Austrian colleagues, e.g. Johannes Keppler University in Linz. The unique mm-wave test-bed in 60 GHz band available for experiments.  Ashleibta, A.M., Taha, A., Khan, M.A. et al. 5G-enabled contactless multi-user presence and activity detection for independent assisted living. Sci Rep 11, 17590 (2021).  Dubey, Anand & Santra, Avik & Fuchs, Jonas & Lübke, Maximilian & Weigel, Robert & Lurz, Fabian. (2021). A Bayesian Framework for Integrated Deep Metric Learning and Tracking of Vulnerable Road Users Using Automotive Radars. IEEE Access. 9. 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3077690.  R. Marsalek, R. Zavorka, M. Pospisil, J. Vychodil, J. Gotthans and J. Blumenstein, "Human Activity Classification via Millimeter-Wave Channel Level Crossing Estimation," 2021 IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques in Wireless Communications (MTTW), 2021, pp. 301-305
- Methods for testing of COTS semiconductor components radiation hardness with respect to space missions
In recent years more and more commercial companies and research institutions are willing to build new satellites and space probes. In case of their electronic equipment, so called "space grade" parts are traditionally used. Such components are manufactured with respect to harsh environment (space), where they are intended to work. Among the most demanding factors are temperature cycling, vacuum, mechanical stress and ionizing radiation. Regarding the radiation, space grade components are guaranteed to withstand certain intensities and doses of ionizing radiation before they cease functioning. However, such rugged components are very expensive and often quite obsolete in terms of overall performance when compared to commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components. Thus many companies are trying to utilize COTS components in their space probe and satellite design to improve electronic system performance (increase computing power, decrease power consumption). FPGAs are especially interesting from this point of view. To ensure sufficient reliability of the whole electronic system, all the COTS components used in the design shall be tested on radiation hardness. Traditionally, this is achieved using a Cobalt-60 gamma ray source, as it is widely available and easy to use. However, the space environment is more complex, energy spectrum of the Cobalt-60 is not a perfect match. The aim of the research is to search for alternative methods of electronic components testing, for example utilizing widespread proton accelerators and their parasitic radiative field. It is expected that the methodology will be verified on an FPGA platform. To support the project, we have active cooperation with Masaryk University Brno, VF inc., Nuclear Research Centre Rez, and Department of Nuclear Reactors at CVUT Prague.  VELAZCO, R., MCMORROW, D, ESTELA , J. (Editors). Radiation Effects on Integrated Circuits and Systems for Space Applications. Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019. ISBN 978-3-030-04660-6.  Y. Kimoto, N. Nemoto, H. Matsumoto, et al., Space radiation environment and its effects on satellites: analysis of the first data from TEDA on board ADEOS-II. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.52(5),1574–1578 (2005)  EIA/JESD57, Test Procedures for the Manegement of Single-Event Effects in Semiconductor Devices from Heavy-Ion Irradiation (EIA/JEDEC Standard, Nov. 2017, available at: https://www.jedec.org/standards-documents/docs/jesd-57)  ASTM F 1192-11, Standard Guide for the Measurement of Single Event Phenomena (SEP) Induced by Heavy Ion Irradiation of Semiconductor Devices (ASTM Standard, West Conshohocken, PA, 2006)  MIL-STD-750-1, Environmental Test Methods for Semiconductor Devices (Department of Defense Test Method Standard, USA, 2012)
Tutor: Kolka Zdeněk, prof. Dr. Ing.
- Millimeter wave channel characterization using machine learning
Steadily growing number of communication devices per area and increasing quality of services require allocation of more frequency resources. Millimeter wave (MMW) frequencies between 30 and 300 GHz have been attracting growing attention as a possible candidate for next-generation broadband cellular networks. Specific limitations of MMW signal propagation, extremely large bandwidth and time variable environment caused by mobile users connected to a backhaul networks traveling in rugged municipal environments create unprecedented challenges to the development of broadband communication systems using advanced technologies for eliminating the undesirable time varying channel features. The general objective of the project is measurement and modelling of the broadband time varying MMW channels between mobile users and infrastructure in delay and spatial domain and extension of our previous research focused on the characterization of intra-vehicle and V2X channels for the purposes of stochastic channel modeling . The parametrization of channel models needs an accurate extraction of the channel parameters such as number, position and amplitudes of multipath components (MPC), clusters, LOS, and NLOS components, etc. in the delay and spatial domains from measured data. Real time capturing of MPCs in a very wide spatial angle is provided, for example, by measuring systems with a fast-spinning antenna. However, such a system produces a huge amount of data. Thus, to get all the MPC related parameters, some automated algorithm is needed. Such algorithms are based for example on identifying the changes in the slope of a channel impulse response or generally on parameter threshold-based identification. Due to the limited accuracy and reliability of many of these methods, we are going to use machine learning (ML) techniques such as Gaussian Mixture Model or K-means algorithm for gathering MPCs with similar parameters behavior . Further the project also envisages the use of supervised ML such as Deep Neural Networks or Support Vector Machine to predict and estimate the channel parameters and examine large and small-scale fading including parameters such as path loss, delay path loss exponent, Doppler spread, angle of arrival, and other variables describing the channel . The above algorithms are expected to be implemented using Machine Learning Workflow with Keras, Tensorflow, and Python . An alternative implementation in MATLAB also possible. The student will be a member of the international team of scientists from Brno University of Technology, TU Vienna, Austrian Institute of Technology Vienna, University of Southern California, National Institute of Technology Durgapur India, and Military University of Technology Warsaw.  E. Zöchmann, M. Hofer, M. Lerch, S. Pratschner, L. Bernado, J. Blumenstein, S. Caban, S. Sangodoyin, H. Groll, T. Zemen, A. Prokeš, M. Rupp, A. Molisch, C. Mecklenbräuker, Position-Specific Statistics of 60 GHz Vehicular Channels During Overtaking. IEEE Access, 2019, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 14216-14232.  S. M. Aldossari, K.C. Chen, Machine Learning for Wireless Communication Channel Modeling: An Overview, Wireless Personal Communications, 2019, 106, p. 41 – 70.  R. A. Osman, S. N. Saleh, Y. N. M. Saleh, M. N. Elagamy, Enhancing the Reliability of Communication between Vehicle and Everything (V2X) Based on Deep Learning for Providing Efficient Road Traffic Information. Applied Science, 2021, vol. 11, art. no. 11382.  C. A. Mattmann, Machine Learning with TensorFlow, Second Edition, Manning Publications, 2021.
- Neutron and gamma radiation spectroscopy using proportional detectors
Currently Bonner spheres are used to measure field of low-energy neutrons (< 100 keV). This method is cumbersome and time-consuming, which limits its application. Utilization of proportional detectors is an alternative and very promising method suitable for measuring mixed fields of photons (gamma rays) and neutrons in energetic range from about 20 keV to 1 MeV. The main benefit of using the proportional detector is that it is capable of both energy measurement and particle discrimination (gamma / neutron) in wide energy range and in reasonably short time. However, so far there is only limited success in the processing of proportional detector output signals, namely discrimination of gamma/neutron particles and energy estimation of those particles. The reason is that the response of the detector is dependent not only on energy and type of the particle, but also on the geometry of the detector and actual trajectory of the particle travelling through the detector. The aim of the thesis is to establish methods (algorithms) for particle discrimination and their respective energy measurement. Currently we have an experimental setup based on FPGA-based data acquisition board, which is intended for experimental data gathering. The data shall be processed in a PC to determine optimum method of energy measurement and particle discrimination. Machine learning techniques are one promising method that shall be (at least) considered. Later on, the FPGA should include those methods (algorithms) so that it can provide measurement results (energy / particle distribution) directly, acting as a stand-alone measurement device. To support the project, we have active cooperation with Masaryk University Brno, VF inc., Nuclear Research Centre Rez, and Department of Nuclear Reactors at CVUT Prague. Those institutions will provide equipment required for experiments with proportional detectors (gamma and neutron radiation sources). The measurement hardware (FPGA-based digitizer with preamplifier) is currently under development in frame of master thesis of student Ondrej Kolar. Ondrej is going to follow up with this topic on his PhD thesis.  KNOLL, Glenn F. Radiation Detection and Measurement. 3rd edition. Michigan: John Wiley & Sons, 2000. ISBN 0-471-07338-5.  LANGFORD, T.J., C.D. BASS, E.J. BEISE, H. BREUER, D.K. ERWIN, C.R. HEIMBACH a J.S. NICO. Event identification in 3He proportional counters using risetime discrimination. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment [online]. 2013, 717, 51-57 [cit. 2021-12-29]. ISSN 01689002. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2013.03.062  HEEGER, K.M., S.R. ELLIOTT, R.G.H. ROBERTSON, M.W.E. SMITH, T.D. STEIGER a J.F. WILKERSON. High-voltage microdischarge in ultra-low background 3He proportional counters. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science [online]. 2000, 47(6), 1829-1833 [cit. 2021-12-29]. ISSN 0018-9499. doi:10.1109/23.914454
Tutor: Kolka Zdeněk, prof. Dr. Ing.
- Novel analog blocks, concepts and methods for sensing and processing of electrical and nonelectrical quantities
The integrated circuits are very important for processing of signals from sensors and sensor readouts as a part of modern physical layer of communication systems , . They offer significant minimization of system area and low power consumption. Therefore, these concepts are highly useful for biomedical applications (blood analysis – presence of various chemicals, bio-impedances measurement and evaluation, etc. , ), in mechanics (distance influences capacity) , etc. This topic includes study of utilization of discrete of-the-shelf as well as integrated active building cells and blocks (amplifiers, converters, generators, flip-flop circuits, etc.) and study of features of currently available types of sensors for various physical quantities. The recommendations, requirements, models, methodologies and specific solutions for various specific active sensor readouts and processing of signals are expected to be formulated for proposals of novel and advanced systems. The initial state of work concentrates on review of state of the art in discussed areas and results achieved at the workplace. It allows to find the most suitable specific topic (methodology, verification and measurement, modeling, discrete/integrated analog/mixed low-power or complex systems design) fitting to interests of candidate. These activities expect involvement in experimental work (in frame of projects of basic research – cooperation with research team including foreign experts) on design and implementation of integer-order as well as fractional-order circuits , modules (sensing readouts)  and components in discrete or integrated form and writing and dissemination of publications. This specialization offers significant enhancement of skills and competences in work with modern software tools (PSpice, Cadence Virtuoso/Spectre) of analog/mixed design approaches and further experience in detailed principles of advanced circuit solutions including cooperation on design of application specific integrated circuit. References  R. Sotner, J. Jerabek, L. Polak, J. Petrzela, W. Jaikla and S. Tuntrakool, “Illuminance Sensing in Agriculture Applications Based on Infra-Red Short-Range Compact Transmitter Using 0.35 um CMOS Active Device.” IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 18149-18161, 2020, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2966752  R. Sotner, L. Polak, J. Jerabek, “Low-cost remote distance and height sensing analog device for laboratory agriculture environments.” Measurement Science and Technology, online first, 2022, doi: 10.1088/1361-6501/ac543c  C. Vastarouchas, C.Psychalinos, A.S. Elwakil, A.A.Al-Ali, “Novel Two-Measurements-Only Cole-Cole Bio-Impedance Parameters Extraction Technique.” Measurement, vol. 131, pp. 394–399, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.09.008  S. Kapoulea, C. Psychalinos, A. S. Elwakil, “Realization of Cole-Davidson function-based impedance models: Application on Plant Tissues.” Fractal and Fractional Journal, vol. 4, 54, 2020. doi: 10.3390/fractalfract4040054  L. Polak, R. Sotner, J. Petrzela, J. Jerabek, “CMOS Current Feedback Operational Amplifier-Based Relaxation Generator for Capacity to Voltage Sensor Interface.” Sensors, vol. 18, 4488, 2018. doi: 10.3390/s18124488
- Passive localization of experimental satellites in low Earth orbits
With the increasing amount of small satellite deployed during every rocket lauch, there is arising problem of identification of dozens satellites from radar signals , where responses are very similar due to the small satellite standardisation (cubesats, pocketcubes etc.) Therefore identification by emitted signals in downlink bands is used but only doppler information or AOS/LOS times are utilized which results in poor resolution and needs long time to allow the satellites to disperse along the orbital plane. The aim of the project is a study of actual signals from experimental satellites and its influence on localization. Part of the work will be a study of error sources as atmospheric influence and parameters of SDR receivers. Methods of receivers’ synchronization will be studied and selected ones will be implemented . Measurement with multiple of SDR receivers will follow to get experimental data for localization implementation by time difference of arrival method in the UHF band. The research then will be targeted to optimal solutions for high precision, resolution and other parameters of realized system.  Choi J., Jo J.H., Choi E.-J., Yu J., Choi B.-K., Kim M.-J., Yim H.-S., Roh D.-G., Kim S., Park J.-H., Cho S. Space surveillance radar observation analysis: One-year tracking and orbit determination results of KITSAT-1. (2020) Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, 37 (2), pp. 105 – 115, DOI: 10.5140/JASS.2020.37.2.105  KADERKA, J.; URBANEC, T. Time and sample rate synchronization of RTL-SDR using a GPS receiver. In 2020 30th International Conference Radioelektronika (RADIOELEKTRONIKA). 2020. p. 100-103. ISBN: 978-1-7281-6469-4.
- Perspective methods for precise positioning of people and wireless devices in an indoor environment
Nowadays, there are numerous methods to monitor, track and localize people and wireless devices in indoor environments. In the future, due to new emerging wireless communication systems (for instance the field of Internet-of-Things or Low-Power Wide Area Networks – LPWAN), it is assumed that current localization methods and techniques will need improvement or extension. From this point of view, utilization of machine learning and deep learning (ML and DL) techniques are among perspective solutions -. This dissertation thesis focuses on advanced methods and approaches for precise localization of people and wireless devices in an indoor environment. Development and realization of methods and approaches should be based on techniques evaluating parameters like RSSI, ToA and AoA . Utilization of ML and DL-based approaches to improve efficiency and accuracy of localization methods in an indoor environment is assumed . Testing and verification of the proposed methods and approaches by a set of measurements under laboratory and real conditions is an inseparable part of this work. It is assumed that publicly available and self-created dataset will be used for training the DL-based architectures . The DL algorithm (or algorithms) is expected to be programmed in Python using available libraries (PyTorch, Keras, TensorFlow) and should be publicly available for research community. The final DL algorithm must find tradeoff between complexity, accuracy and efficiency.  F. Zafari, A. Gkelias and K. K. Leung, "A Survey of Indoor Localization Systems and Technologies," IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 2568-2599, Thirdquarter 2019, DOI: 10.1109/COMST.2019.2911558  J. Pelant et al., "BLE device indoor localization based on RSS fingerprinting mapped by propagation modes," 2017 27th International Conference Radioelektronika (RADIOELEKTRONIKA), 2017, pp. 1-5, DOI: 10.1109/RADIOELEK.2017.7937584  L. Polak et al. Received Signal Strength Fingerprinting-Based Indoor Location Estimation Employing Machine Learning. Sensors, 2021, vol. 21, no. 13, pp. 1–25. DOI: 10.3390/s21134605
- Perspective optical wireless communication systems for communication standard B5G a 6G
The constant development of new standards for wireless communications places increasing demands on individual communication components in terms of transmission speed, transmission capacity, security, versatility, scalability and energy efficiency. Meeting these requirements requires advanced hardware and technology operating in the new spectrum bands . Optical wireless communications, thanks to their specific properties and constant development, occupy an important and irreplaceable place in modern communication technologies, whether for short or long distances. The planned implementation of optical wireless links (FSO) in the B5G and 6G standards for mobile communications is an impulse for a denser deployment of these links in cities and built-up areas. Deployment for temporary (ad-hoc) networks between the UAV (Unnamed Aerial Vehicle) and the ground station is also envisaged. The subject of the scientific project is to investigate methods of optical signal generation and detection in optical wireless communication systems (FSO and VLC), which are implemented in the B5G standard or are planned in 6G. The research will focus on signal processing in optical transceivers. New advanced types of modulations and channel coding will be analyzed. Experimental work will be focused on the comparison of selected types of modulators and detectors. The research aims to suppress the negative influence of the atmosphere - on the transmission of the optical signal, to optimize the transmission technology and to increase its reliability and availability.  PÄRSSINEN, A.; ALOUINI, M.; BERG, M.; KUERNER, T.; KYÖSTI, P.; LEINONEN, M. E.; MATINMIKKO-BLUE; M., MCCUNE, E.; PFEIFFER, U., and WAMBACQ, P. (Eds.). (2020). White Paper on RF Enabling 6G – Opportunities and Challenges from Technology to Spectrum [White paper]. (6G Research Visions, No. 13). University of Oulu.  BARCIK, P.; WILFERT, O.; DOBESCH, A.; KOLKA, Z.; HUDCOVA, L.; NOVAK, M.; LEITGEB, E. Experimental measurement of the atmospheric turbulence effects and their influence on performance of fully photonic wireless communication receiver. Physical Communication, 2018, vol. 31, no. 1, p. 212-217. ISSN: 1874-4907.  MAREK NOVAK; PETER BARCIK; PETR SKRYJA; ZDENEK KOLKA. Service Data Transmission System for Free Space Optics. In 20th Conference on Microwave Techniques COMITE 2021. Brno: IEEE, 2021. s. 1-4. ISBN: 978-1-6654-1454-8.  POLIAK, J.; BARCIK, P.; WILFERT, O. Diffraction Effects and Optical Beam Shaping in FSO Terminals. In Optical Wireless Communications - An Emerging Technology. Springer International Publishing Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2016. p. 1-21. ISBN: 978-3-319-30200- 3.
- Spatio-temporal function estimation in mobile scenarios
Spatial function estimation is a signal processing task finding its application among others in the telecommunications field as a way to estimate the Received Signal Strength (RSS) map and other spatially varying performance metrics based on sensor observations. In this application, a high-quality estimation of a spatial function enables an effective allocation of network resources. The aim of this project is to investigate and formulate methods for spatial function estimation considering multiple problem aspects. These aspects shall include mobility of the sensors, sensor position uncertainty, distributed sensor operation, and extended sensor location information. Moreover, a temporal dimension of the estimation scenario shall also be considered. An emphasis shall be put on the usage of Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) as a high-performing and versatile method for spatial function estimation.
- Tunability range extension in electronically adjustable circuits
Decreasing value of power supply voltage creates limited conditions for electronic tuning of circuits (for example active filters and oscillators) in comparison to standard current systems operating with high DC power supply. The main task of this work focuses on research and study of methods of electronic control of applications (for example filters and oscillators) working as components of modern communication systems. Suitable combination of features for control of active elements  and change of character of dependence (e.g. oscillation frequency vs. adjustable parameter) , as well as popular fractional-order approaches  serve for substantial improvement of tunability range and features of circuits for application in communication systems, in various methods of measurement, etc. The initial stage of work concentrates on review of state of the art of methods and approaches for tunability enhancement achieved at the workplace as well as on principles of advanced active elements suitable for these purposes. Further activities target on formulation of novel approaches and experimentally verified methodologies using discrete/integrated analog circuits (modern software tools as PSpice, Cadence Virtuoso/Spectre) including cooperation on design of application specific integrated circuit (experience in detailed principles of advanced circuit solutions). Cooperation with international research group (in frame of projects of basic research) on writing and dissemination of publications is possible and expected. References  R. Sotner, J. Jerabek, N. Herencsar and J. Petrzela, "Methods for Extended Tunability in Quadrature Oscillators Based on Enhanced Electronic Control of Time Constants." IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 1495-1505, 2018. doi: 10.1109/TIM.2018.2799058.  R. Sotner, J. Jerabek, J. Petrzela, O. Domansky, W. Jaikla and T. Dostal, "Exponentially tunable voltage controlled quadrature oscilator." 40th International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP), 2017, pp. 302-306, doi: 10.1109/TSP.2017.8075992.  R. Sotner, J. Jerabek, L. Polak, L. Langhammer, H. Stolarova, J. Petrzela, D. Andriukaitis, A. Valinevicius, “On the performance of electronically tunable fractional-order oscillator using grounded resonator concept.” AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications, vol. 129, pp. 1-17, 2021. doi: 10.1016/j.aeue.2020.153540
- Turbulent model of the underwater medium for optical wireless communications
Underwater optical communication (UWOC) is one of the perspective directions in optical communications, which is now receiving a lot of attention. The main advantage of underwater communication is real-time communication and high transmission bitrates for short distances , . The range of underwater optical links is significantly limited by the spectrally dependent attenuation properties of the water transmission medium depending on the concentration of impurities. The effect of water mass flow (underwater turbulence) on optical signals is also crucial. The turbulence strength depends on several complex water medium parameters (e.g., water temperature, salinity, water flow speed, the refractive index of water, underwater depth, seabed relief) , . The aim of the project is a detailed analysis of the underwater medium regarding the water mass flow and the determination of turbulence strength of the underwater transmission medium. The main output of the project will be a turbulent model of the underwater medium, which will define changes in the optical beams' propagation in this medium. Analyzing the propagation of optical beams in the underwater turbulent medium, parameters of the optical beams must be taken into the account (e.g., the intensity profile of the beam, beam coherence, the beam half-width, or the beam wavelength). It is also necessary to determine the degree of the optical signal dispersion for different propagation directions in the turbulent underwater medium. The important goal of the project is to determine the limits of the range and transmission speed of optical underwater links.  H. Kaushal and G. Kaddoum, "Underwater Optical Wireless Communication," in IEEE Access, vol. 4, pp. 1518-1547, 2016, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2016.2552538.  Z. Zeng, S. Fu, H. Zhang, Y. Dong and J. Cheng, "A Survey of Underwater Optical Wireless Communications," in IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 204-238, Firstquarter 2017, doi: 10.1109/COMST.2016.2618841.  C. T. Geldard, J. Thompson and W. O. Popoola, "Empirical Study of the Underwater Turbulence Effect on Non-Coherent Light," in IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 32, no. 20, pp. 1307-1310, 15 Oct.15, 2020, doi: 10.1109/LPT.2020.3020368.  S. Zhang, L. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Quan, J. Cheng and Y. Dong, "On Performance of Underwater Wireless Optical Communications Under Turbulence," 2020 IEEE 17th Annual Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC), 2020, pp. 1-2, doi: 10.1109/CCNC46108.2020.9045458.
- Unconventional approaches for transmission lines modelling and simulation
In today’s high-speed mixed electronic systems the transmission lines play important role as interconnects inside and/or among their subsystems due to wave effects occuring at frequencies above hundreds of megahertz . Real interconnects have to moreover be considered as lossy, often nonuniform, and in some special cases also nonlinear. The losses of transmission lines, especially a skin effect and a dielectric loss, are frequency dependent which is becoming more significant for high frequencies. The transmission lines are commonly described by systems of telegraph equations. As is known, however, a number of physical effects cannot be described with sufficient accuracy by using classical integer-order differential equations. In this field, the theory of fractional-order differential equations (FDE) and corresponding models can be utilized with advantage for their more credible description -. Besides, as a result of imperfect manufacturing processes the real interconnects suffer from random disturbances in values of their parameters which should be taken into account in devices designs. There are various approaches to characterize these random variations, e.g. Monte Carlo or polynomial chaos methods . One of the promissing direction is to apply the theory of stochastic differential equations (SDE) . So far most models and techniques were based on the application of ordinary SDEs , , an open possibility is to utilize partial SDEs as well. The topic is a part of broader signal integrity issues being solved in high-speed electronic systems . Currently the above approaches and corersponding models are usually considered separatelly. The aim of the thesis is to develop models and methods for computer simulation of transmission lines which would be able to take into account both fractional nature and stochastic variability of their parameters. It is supposed that Matlab and PSpice programs will widely be utilized at the solution, therefore, their knowledge is required at candidates, as well as their interest of mathematical modelling.  S. H. Hall, H. L. Heck, Advanced Signal Integrity for High-Speed Digital Designs, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2011.  Fractional-Order Modeling of Dynamic Systems with Applications in Optimization, Signal Processing, and Control, Edited by Ahmed G. Radwan, Farooq Ahmad Khanday and Lobna A. Said, Academic Press, 2021.  N. Al-Zubaidi R-Smith, A. Kartci, L. Brancik, “Application of Numerical Inverse Laplace Transform Methods for Simulation of Distributed Systems with Fractional-Order Elements,” Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers JCSC, vol. 27, no. 11, p 1-25, 2018.  S. M. Cvetianin, D. Zorica, and M. R. Rapaić, “Generalized time-fractional telegraphers equation in transmission line modeling,” Nonlinear Dynamics, vol. 88, no. 2, p. 1453-1472, 2017.  P. Manfredi, D. V. Ginste, I. S. Stievano, D. De Zutter and F. G. Canavero, "Stochastic transmission line analysis via polynomial chaos methods: an overview," IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Magazine, vol. 6, no. 3, p. 77-84, 2017.  S. Särkkä, A. F. Solin, Applied Stochastic Differential Equations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019.  A. Zjajo, Q. Tang, M. Berkelaar, J. P. de Gyvez, A. Di Bucchianico, N. van der Meijs, ”Stochastic analysis of deep-submicrometer CMOS process for reliable circuits designs,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, vol. 58, no. 1, 2011, p. 164-175.  L. Brancik, E. Kolarova, “Simulation of multiconductor transmission lines with random parameters via stochastic differential equations approach,” SIMULATION-Transactions of the Society for Modeling and Simulation International, vol. 92, no. 6, p. 521-533, 2016.
Course structure diagram with ECTS credits
|DKA-RE1||Modern Electronic Circuit Design||en||4||Compulsory||DrEx||K - 39||yes|
|DKA-ET1||Electrotechnical Materials, Material Systems and Production Processes||en||4||Compulsory-optional||DrEx||K - 39||yes|
|DKA-FY1||Junctions and Nanostructures||en||4||Compulsory-optional||DrEx||K - 39||yes|
|DKA-EE1||Mathematical Modelling of Electrical Power Systems||en||4||Compulsory-optional||DrEx||K - 39||yes|
|DKA-ME1||Modern Microelectronic Systems||en||4||Compulsory-optional||DrEx||K - 39||yes|
|DKA-TK1||Optimization Methods and Queuing Theory||en||4||Compulsory-optional||DrEx||K - 39||yes|
|DKA-AM1||Selected Chaps From Automatic Control||en||4||Compulsory-optional||DrEx||K - 39||yes|
|DKA-VE1||Selected Problems From Power Electronics and Electrical Drives||en||4||Compulsory-optional||DrEx||K - 39||yes|
|DKA-TE1||Special Measurement Methods||en||4||Compulsory-optional||DrEx||K - 39||yes|
|DKA-MA1||Statistics, Stochastic Processes, Operations Research||en||4||Compulsory-optional||DrEx||K - 39||yes|
|DKX-JA6||English for post-graduates||en||4||Elective||DrEx||Cj - 26||yes|
|DKA-EIZ||Scientific Publishing A to Z||en||2||Elective||DrEx||K - 26||yes|
|DKA-RIZ||Solving of Innovative Tasks||en||2||Elective||DrEx||K - 39||yes|
|DKA-RE2||Modern Digital Wireless Communication||en||4||Compulsory||DrEx||K - 39||yes|
|DKA-TK2||Applied Cryptography||en||4||Compulsory-optional||DrEx||K - 39||no|
|DKA-MA2||Discrete Processes in Electrical Engineering||en||4||Compulsory-optional||DrEx||K - 39||yes|
|DKA-ME2||Microelectronic Technologies||en||4||Compulsory-optional||DrEx||K - 39||yes|
|DKA-EE2||New Trends and Technologies in Power System Generation||en||4||Compulsory-optional||DrEx||K - 39||yes|
|DKA-TE2||Numerical Computations with Partial Differential Equations||en||4||Compulsory-optional||DrEx||K - 39||yes|
|DKA-ET2||Selected Diagnostic Methods, Reliability and Quality||en||4||Compulsory-optional||DrEx||K - 39||yes|
|DKA-AM2||Selected Chaps From Measuring Techniques||en||4||Compulsory-optional||DrEx||K - 39||yes|
|DKA-FY2||Spectroscopic Methods for Non-Destructive Diagnostics||en||4||Compulsory-optional||DrEx||K - 39||yes|
|DKA-VE2||Topical Issues of Electrical Machines and Apparatus||en||4||Compulsory-optional||DrEx||K - 39||yes|
|DKX-JA6||English for post-graduates||en||4||Elective||DrEx||Cj - 26||yes|
|DKA-CVP||Quotations in a Research Work||en||2||Elective||DrEx||K - 26||yes|
|DKA-RIZ||Solving of Innovative Tasks||en||2||Elective||DrEx||K - 39||yes|
|DKX-QJA||English for the state doctoral exam||en||4||Elective||DrEx||K - 3||yes|