Course detail

Molecular Biology

FEKT-MPA-MOLAcad. year: 2023/2024

Course is conceived as an introduction into molecular biology. It gives the explanation of processes on molecular level in relation to the basic functions of living systems (procaryotic as well as eucaryotic organisms and viruses). On the whole, the general molecular processes occuring in living systems are emphasized with respect to the specificities characteristic of the main groups of living systems (bacteria, archea, plants, animals and viruses).

Language of instruction


Number of ECTS credits


Mode of study

Not applicable.

Offered to foreign students

Of all faculties

Entry knowledge

The student should be able to explain fundamental principles of genetics, should know basic terms and laws of molecular biology. Generally, knowledge on the level of Bachelor study is required.

Rules for evaluation and completion of the course

up to 40 points from computer exercises (2 tests, 1 homework, and activity in labs)
up to 60 points from finel written exam
The exam is oriented to verification of orientation in advanced terms of molecular biology.
Computer exercises are obligatory. Excused absence can be substituted.


The aim of the course is to provide knowledge of differences of eukaryots, prokaryots and viruses in molecular biology.
The student will be able to:
- describe principles of processes in living organisms on molecular level,
- explain gene expression,
- describe principle of cell signalling,
- discus changes of genetic information.

Study aids

Not applicable.

Prerequisites and corequisites

Not applicable.

Basic literature

Rosypal S. a kol. : Úvod do molekulární biologie. I.-IVdíl. Brno 1999-2002 (třetí vydání). 2006 - I. díl (čtvrté vydání)
Relichová, J. Praktická cvičení z genetiky. Masarykova univerzita v Brně, 1997, ISBN 80- 210-1484-9 (96 stran) Relichová, J. (1997): Praktická cvičení z genetiky. Masarykova univerzita v Brně, 1997, ISBN 80- 210-1484-9 (EN)

Recommended reading

Not applicable.


Classification of course in study plans

  • Programme MITAI Master's

    specialization NBIO , any year of study, winter semester, elective

  • Programme MPC-BTB Master's, 1. year of study, winter semester, compulsory

Type of course unit



26 hours, optionally

Teacher / Lecturer


1. Introduction to study of molecular biology, genesis and development. Cell, chemical composition, chemical energy, proteins: structure and function, structure and function of nucleic acid.
2. Genetic information, genetic code, definition of gene, types of genes, structure and information content of genomes.
3. Replication of DNA (enzymes and mechanism).
4. Transcription of prokaryotes and eukaryotes, posttranscription of RNA.
5. Translation, transfer RNA, ribosomes, co-translation and post-translation processes.
6. Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes, structure and characteristics of promoters, positive and negative operon regulation, attenuation.
7. Regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes, transcription factors, transcriptional enhancers. Cell division, control of the cell cycle.
8. Molecular basis of immune molecule formation.
9. Cell signaling (signaling molecules, receptors, signaling pathways). Membrane structure, substance transport across membranes, cell-to-cell communication.
10. Genetic information changes, mutations, general and site-specific recombination, repair of mutation-damaged DNA.
11. Mobile elements (prokaryotic and eukaryotic transposons, retrotransposons). Tissues.
12. Fundamentals of genetic engineering, preparation of transgenic organisms and their applications, in vitro mutagenesis, preparation of biopreparations using genetic engineering methods, gene therapy.
13. Basics of using biochemical methods in molecular biology. 

Laboratory exercise

39 hours, compulsory

Teacher / Lecturer


L01 Laboratory introduction, Absorption spectroscopy
L02 DNA isolation from bacterial cells
L03 DNA isolation from animal cells
L04 Quality and quantity control of DNA
L05 PCR Primer Design
L06 PCR Amplification
L07 Passaging cells
L08 The Bradford Method for Protein Quantitation, Color Reactions of Amino Acids
L09 Protein isolation and 2D gel electrophoresis
L10 Restriction enzyme digestion
L11 Restriction enzyme digestion II
L12 Real-time PCR