Course detail

# Solid State Physics

FEKT-MKC-FPFAcad. year: 2023/2024

Basic concepts of quantum and atomic physics. Structure of solids. Crystal lattice. Band theory of solids. Electric charge transport. Electrons and holes in non-equilibrium state. Selected semiconductor structures, sources and detectors of radiation.

Language of instruction

Czech

Number of ECTS credits

5

Mode of study

Not applicable.

Guarantor

Department

Entry knowledge

The student who enrols in the course should be able to use the Cartesian coordinate system, should operate to solve simple cases of uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion, Newton's laws and the laws of conservation of energy and momentum. He should be able to describe the basic structure of matter at the atomic level, further to explain the term of the electric charge, the electric current. He should be able to use the basic quantities describing the electric and magnetic fields and to assess the impact of these fields on the movement of electric charge. He should be able to describe the oscillating mechanical harmonic motion and to explain the mechanical progressive wave. He should be able to apply the basic laws of geometrical optics (the laws of reflection and refraction) for solving rays of light propagation. Students should be familiar with the mathematical apparatus at the level of basic work with vectors, differentiation and integration of scalar and vector functions of a scalar argument.

Generally, the knowledge on the technical university bachelor degree level is required.

Generally, the knowledge on the technical university bachelor degree level is required.

Rules for evaluation and completion of the course

Students can obtain up to:

- 25 points from the semester project (solving of given problems or elaboration of a given topic)

- 20 points from laboratories (6 reports),

- 55 points from the exam (a written part of 35 points and a verbal part of 20 points).

Students must obtain at least 10 points in the written part to proceed to the verbal part.

Students must obtain at least 5 points in the verbal part to pass the exam.

The exam is focused on the verification of basic knowledge in the field of electrical and optical properties of solids, including solving of selected problems.

Laboratory exercises are compulsory, properly excused missed labs can be compensate after consultation with the teacher.

- 25 points from the semester project (solving of given problems or elaboration of a given topic)

- 20 points from laboratories (6 reports),

- 55 points from the exam (a written part of 35 points and a verbal part of 20 points).

Students must obtain at least 10 points in the written part to proceed to the verbal part.

Students must obtain at least 5 points in the verbal part to pass the exam.

The exam is focused on the verification of basic knowledge in the field of electrical and optical properties of solids, including solving of selected problems.

Laboratory exercises are compulsory, properly excused missed labs can be compensate after consultation with the teacher.

Aims

The objective is to provide students with knowledge of selected electrical and optical properties of solids, including examples of a wide range of interesting applications. Practical knowledge will be verified in the laboratory exercises.

The student is able to:

- explain the behavior of an electron in a potential well and a potential barrier,

- describe the basic nanostructures and their applications (quantum wells, wires, dots, a single light emitting diode, a single photon detector),

- describe the basic properties of atoms,

- describe the crystal structure of solids and explain the formation of energy bands,

- describe the drift and diffusion in solids,

- compute the mobility of charge carriers from the experimental data,

- compute the lifetime of minority carriers and the diffusion length of minority carriers from the experimental data,

- apply the continuity equation and Poisson's equation,

- describe the basic types of generation and recombination processes in semiconductors,

- describe the formation and properties of a PN junction,

- describe a LED and a solar cell.

The student is able to:

- explain the behavior of an electron in a potential well and a potential barrier,

- describe the basic nanostructures and their applications (quantum wells, wires, dots, a single light emitting diode, a single photon detector),

- describe the basic properties of atoms,

- describe the crystal structure of solids and explain the formation of energy bands,

- describe the drift and diffusion in solids,

- compute the mobility of charge carriers from the experimental data,

- compute the lifetime of minority carriers and the diffusion length of minority carriers from the experimental data,

- apply the continuity equation and Poisson's equation,

- describe the basic types of generation and recombination processes in semiconductors,

- describe the formation and properties of a PN junction,

- describe a LED and a solar cell.

Study aids

Not applicable.

Prerequisites and corequisites

Not applicable.

Basic literature

KITTEL, CH. Introduction to Solid State Physics. 7th ed. Wiley, 1996. (EN)

SEEGER, K. Semiconductor Physics. Springer Verlag, 1997. (EN)

FRANK, H. Fyzika a technika polovodičů. SNTL, 1990. (CS)

MIŠEK, J.; KUČERA, L.; KORTÁN, J. Polovodičové zdroje optického záření. SNTL, 1988. (CS)

SEEGER, K. Semiconductor Physics. Springer Verlag, 1997. (EN)

FRANK, H. Fyzika a technika polovodičů. SNTL, 1990. (CS)

MIŠEK, J.; KUČERA, L.; KORTÁN, J. Polovodičové zdroje optického záření. SNTL, 1988. (CS)

Recommended reading

DAVIES, J. H. The Physics of Low-dimensional Semiconductors. Cambridge University Press, 1998. (EN)

KELLY, M. J.: Low-dimensional Semiconductors. Clarendon Press, 1995. (EN)

KELLY, M. J.: Low-dimensional Semiconductors. Clarendon Press, 1995. (EN)

#### Type of course unit

Lecture

39 hours, optionally

Teacher / Lecturer

Syllabus

1)Elements of quantum physics, Schrodinger equation, electron as a particle and as a wave, quantum barriers and wells.

2)Structure of solids, crystallographic systems, crystal lattice defects, noncrystalline solids, heterojunctions, supelattices.

3)Electrons in solids: band diagrams, dispersion relation, effective mass, amorphous semiconductors, distribution function, Boltzmann transport equation, methods of its solution, transport coefficients.

4)Drift, diffusion, galvanomagnetic, thermoelectric, thermomagnetic, piezoelectric and acoustoelectric effects, nonequilibrium charge carriers, hot electrons, ballistic transport.

5)Properties of fundamental microelectronic structures: 3D structures (homojunction, heterojunction, MIS, potential barriers).

6)Properties of fundamental nanoelectronic structures: 2D, 1D, 0D structures (quantum wells, wires, points).

7)Spin effects in electronics.

8)Electromagnetic waves in crystals, isotropic, uniaxial, biaxial crystals.

9)Electromagnetic waves in semiconductors and metals, optical properties of semiconductors in external electric and magnetic field.

10)Lasers: physical principle, coherent radiation generation, different types of lasers, semiconductor lasers.

11)Nonlinear optical effects.

12)Photonic crystals: principle, properties, applications.

13)Reserve.

2)Structure of solids, crystallographic systems, crystal lattice defects, noncrystalline solids, heterojunctions, supelattices.

3)Electrons in solids: band diagrams, dispersion relation, effective mass, amorphous semiconductors, distribution function, Boltzmann transport equation, methods of its solution, transport coefficients.

4)Drift, diffusion, galvanomagnetic, thermoelectric, thermomagnetic, piezoelectric and acoustoelectric effects, nonequilibrium charge carriers, hot electrons, ballistic transport.

5)Properties of fundamental microelectronic structures: 3D structures (homojunction, heterojunction, MIS, potential barriers).

6)Properties of fundamental nanoelectronic structures: 2D, 1D, 0D structures (quantum wells, wires, points).

7)Spin effects in electronics.

8)Electromagnetic waves in crystals, isotropic, uniaxial, biaxial crystals.

9)Electromagnetic waves in semiconductors and metals, optical properties of semiconductors in external electric and magnetic field.

10)Lasers: physical principle, coherent radiation generation, different types of lasers, semiconductor lasers.

11)Nonlinear optical effects.

12)Photonic crystals: principle, properties, applications.

13)Reserve.

Laboratory exercise

13 hours, compulsory

Teacher / Lecturer

Syllabus

Computer exercises

1)Introduction: basic features of computer simulators.

2)Structures of solids.

3)Hall efect and concentrations.

4)Radiation absoption.

5)Electromagnetic waves in solids.

6)Lasers.

1)Introduction: basic features of computer simulators.

2)Structures of solids.

3)Hall efect and concentrations.

4)Radiation absoption.

5)Electromagnetic waves in solids.

6)Lasers.