Course detail

Foundations of Cryptography

FEKT-BKC-ZKRAcad. year: 2023/2024

Basic terminology in cryptology, cryptology categorization, algebraic structures used in cryptography. Generation, testing and use of prime numbers. Group arithmetics. Complexity theory fundamentals. Computationally hard problems used in cryptography – discrete logarithm, RSA problem, EC discrete logarithm. The overview of basic algorithms used in cryptography. Symmetric and asymmetric cryptosystems (DES, AES, RSA, DH, ECDH, SHA2, 3) and their practical use. Provable security concept – proofs, formal models, zero-knowledge, Sigma-protocols.  

Language of instruction


Number of ECTS credits


Mode of study

Not applicable.

Entry knowledge

The course is designed as an introduction to the subject of cryptography thus no prerequisites are required. Only high school knowledge and general PC usage experience is expected.

Rules for evaluation and completion of the course

The maximum of 15 points is given upon completion of the theoretical test in laboratories. The correct completion of all tasks in laboratories adds 15 points. The requirements on the completion of the tasks in laboratories are described in the annual supervisor’s notice. The maximum of 70 points can be gained during the final exam.
The conditions for the successful course completion are stated in the yearly updated supervisor’s notice.


The goal of the course is to provide students with the basic knowledge of cryptography and to provide them with information necessary in more advanced courses in information and communication security. During the course, students will study the theoretical foundations (mainly the algebraic structures and their properties), the most common algorithms and concepts used in modern cryptography.
Students will obtain theoretical foundations of cryptography and computer security. Based on these foundations, students will be able to analyze and design security solutions for information and communication technologies (ICT). Students will be able to explain basic principles of algebraic structures used in cryptography, basic cryptographic primitives (hashes, RNG, provably secure protocols), basic algorithms and describe the internals of symmetric and asymmetric algorithms. Students will be theoretically prepared for follow-up courses from data transfer and ICT security areas.

Study aids

Not applicable.

Prerequisites and corequisites

Not applicable.

Basic literature

OCHODKOVÁ, Eliška. Matematické základy kryptografických algoritmů [online]. [cit. 2013-06-11]. Dostupné z:
BURDA, K. Úvod do kryptografie. Úvod do kryptografie. Brno: Akademické nakladatelství CERM, 2015. ISBN: 978-80-7204-925- 7.

Recommended reading

SINGH, Simon. Kniha kódů a šifer: tajná komunikace od starého Egypta po kvantovou kryptografii. Praha: Dokořán, 2003, 382 s. ISBN 80-865-6918-7.
LEVICKÝ, Dušan. Kryptografia v informačnej bezpečnosti. Košice: Elfa, 2005, 266 s. ISBN 80-808-6022-X.
MENEZES, Alfred J. Handbook of applied cryptography. Vyd. 1. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1997, 780 s. ISBN 08-493-8523-7. Online
STALLINGS, William. Cryptography and network security: principles and practice. Seventh edition. xix, 731 pages. ISBN 01-333-5469-5.
GARRETT, Paul. Making, breaking codes: an introduction to cryptology. Vyd. 1. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2001, xix, 523 s. ISBN 01-303-0369-0.


Classification of course in study plans

  • Programme BKC-TLI Bachelor's, 3. year of study, winter semester, compulsory

Type of course unit



26 hours, optionally

Teacher / Lecturer


1. Introduction to cryptography, history
2. Introduction to number theory
3. Primes and their use in cryptography
4. Basic structures used in cryptography I
5. Basic structures used in cryptography II
6. Modular arithmetic
7. Complexity theory, problem classification
8. Cryptography algorithms I
9. Cryptography algorithms II
10. Practical encryption
11. Practical authentication and digital signature


Exercise in computer lab

39 hours, compulsory

Teacher / Lecturer


1. Introduction exercise
2. Basic operations and their software implementation
3. Generating and testing prime numbers
4. Generation of groups and their properties
5. Discrete logarithm and its use in cryptography
6. RSA problem and its use in cryptography
7. Elliptic curves and their use in cryptography
8. Basic algorithms
9. Basics of work in cryptographic simulation software
10. Simulation of simple cryptosystems
11. Simulation of modern encryption algorithms