Course detail

Vacuum Physics and Technology

FSI-TTVAcad. year: 2023/2024

The course is devoted to physical processes taking place in vacuum, vacuum measurements, techniques for obtaining vacuum, materials suitable for construction of vacuum systems, and basic components of vacuum systems.

Language of instruction


Number of ECTS credits


Mode of study

Not applicable.

Entry knowledge

Knowledge of Newtonian mechanics on the level defined by the textbook HALLIDAY, D. - RESNICK, R. - WALKER, J. Fundamentals of Physics. J. Wiley and Sons. Working knowledge of differential, and integral calculus is expected.

Rules for evaluation and completion of the course

The exam is divided into written- and oral part.
The presence at the practices is obligatory. Absence compensation is laid down by the teacher according to the range of the absented matter.


The aim is to facilitate students in basic view on vacuum physics to be able to design simple vacuum systems and to operate simple technologic apparatuses using various levels of vacuum for fabrication of thin films.
Students acquire abilities to calculate and design simple vacuum apparatus (pump velocity, degassing of chamber walls, selection of materials and seals). Students are also able to localize vacuum leaks by various methods.

Study aids

Not applicable.

Prerequisites and corequisites

Not applicable.

Basic literature

Weissler, G. L. - Carlsson, R. W.: Vacuum Physics and Technology
Groszkowski, J.: Fyzika a technika vakua
Roth, A.: Vacum Technology

Recommended reading

Pátý, L.: Fyzika nízkých tlaků
Lukáč, P.: Netesnosti vákuových systémov
Lukáč, P.: Sbierka príkladov z vákuovej fyziky

Classification of course in study plans

  • Programme B-FIN-P Bachelor's, 3. year of study, winter semester, compulsory

Type of course unit



26 hours, optionally

Teacher / Lecturer


Vacuum. Vacuum definition and classification. History of vacuum techniques. Importance of vacuum technology and applications of vacuum techniques. Books on vacuum technology.
Maxwell distribution of the velocities. Pressure of gas. Mean free path. Law´s of kinetic theory of ideal gases.
Physical processes in vacuum systems.
Effusion, diffusion, transfer of heat and momentum. Flow of gases. Adsorption and desorption. Solubility and permeation of the gases. Evaporation and condensation.
Ionization of the gases. Interactions of electrons and ions with solid surfaces.
Vacuum production. Pumping speed. Pumping of a vacuum system. Rotary and sorption pumps. Diffusion pumps. Turbomolecular pumps. Ion pumps. Cryogenic pumps.
Measurement of low pressures. McLeod gauge, membrane gauges, Pirani gauge, Penning gauges and others ionization gauges.
Quadrupole spectrometer.
High vacuum technology. Components of vacuum apparatus. Materials useful ranges for vacuum. Vacuum valves. Flange fittings. Electrical vacuum feedthroughs. Motion transmission into the vacuum chamber. Vacuum apparatuses. Design of the vacuum complex.
Leak detection. Outgasing of the walls. Rules for operating vacuum systems.


10 hours, compulsory

Teacher / Lecturer


The tutorial will be in direct link with the course (solving sample problems of the throughput and pumping speed). Excursion to vacuum laboratory of the Institute of Physical Engineering.

Computer-assisted exercise

3 hours, compulsory

Teacher / Lecturer


Computer-aided design vacuum apparatus.