Course detail

Molecular Biology

FEKT-MPA-MOLAcad. year: 2022/2023

Course is conceived as an introduction into molecular biology. It gives the explanation of processes on molecular level in relation to the basic functions of living systems (procaryotic as well as eucaryotic organisms and viruses). On the whole, the general molecular processes occuring in living systems are emphasized with respect to the specificities characteristic of the main groups of living systems (bacteria, archea, plants, animals and viruses).

Language of instruction


Number of ECTS credits


Mode of study

Not applicable.

Offered to foreign students

Of all faculties

Learning outcomes of the course unit

The student will be able to:
- describe principles of processes in living organisms on molecular level,
- explain gene expression,
- describe principle of cell signalling,
- discus changes of genetic information.


The student should be able to explain fundamental principles of genetics, should know basic terms and laws of molecular biology. Generally, knowledge on the level of Bachelor study is required.


Not applicable.

Planned learning activities and teaching methods

Teaching methods depend on the type of course unit as specified in the article 7 of BUT Rules for Studies and Examinations.

Assesment methods and criteria linked to learning outcomes

up to 40 points from computer exercises (2 tests, 1 homework, and activity in labs)
up to 60 points from finel written exam
The exam is oriented to verification of orientation in advanced terms of molecular biology.

Course curriculum

1. Introduction to the study of molecular biology. Cell, the chemical composition of cells, chemical energy, protein: structure and function, structure and function of nucleic acids.
2. Genetic information, genetic code, gene definitions, types of gene structure and information content of genomes.
3. Replication of DNA (the participating enzymes and mechanisms).
4. Transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, posttranscriptional RNA editing.
5. Translation, transfer RNA, ribosomes, cotranslational and posttranslational processes.
6. Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes, structure and properties of the promoter, the positive and negative regulation of operon, attenuation.
7. Regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes, transcription factors, transcriptional. Cell division, cell cycle control.
8. Molecular basis for the development of immunite molecules.
9. Cell signaling (signal molecules, receptors, signaling pathways). The structure of the membranes, transfer of substances through the membrane, the communication between cells.
10. Changes in genetic information, mutation, general and site-specific recombination, repair of damaged DNA mutant.
11. Mobile elements (prokaryotic and eukaryotic transposons, retrotransposons). Tissues.
12. Introduction of genetic engineering, production of transgenic organisms, and their use, in vitro mutagenesis, gene therapy.
13. Basics of using biochemical methods in molecular biology.

Work placements

Not applicable.


The aim of the course is to provide knowledge of differences of eukaryots, prokaryots and viruses in molecular biology.

Specification of controlled education, way of implementation and compensation for absences

Computer exercises are obligatory. Excused absence can be substituted.

Recommended optional programme components

Not applicable.

Prerequisites and corequisites

Not applicable.

Basic literature

Rosypal S. a kol. : Úvod do molekulární biologie. I.-IVdíl. Brno 1999-2002 (třetí vydání). 2006 - I. díl (čtvrté vydání)
Relichová, J. Praktická cvičení z genetiky. Masarykova univerzita v Brně, 1997, ISBN 80- 210-1484-9 (96 stran) Relichová, J. (1997): Praktická cvičení z genetiky. Masarykova univerzita v Brně, 1997, ISBN 80- 210-1484-9 (EN)

Recommended reading

Not applicable.


Classification of course in study plans

  • Programme MITAI Master's

    specialization NBIO , any year of study, winter semester, elective

  • Programme MPC-BTB Master's, 1. year of study, winter semester, compulsory

Type of course unit



26 hours, optionally

Teacher / Lecturer


1. Introduction to study of molecular biology, genesis and development. Cell, chemical composition, chemical energy, proteins: structure and function, structure and function of nucleic acid.
2. Genetic information, genetic code, definition of gene, types of genes, structure and information content of genomes.
3. Replication of DNA (enzymes and mechanism).
4. Transcription of prokaryotes and eukaryotes, posttranscription of RNA.
5. Translation, transfer RNA, ribosomes, cotranslation and posttranslation processes.
6. Regulace genové exprese u prokaryot, struktura a vlastnosti promotoru, pozitivní a negativní regulace operonu, atenuace.
7. Regulace genové exprese u eukaryot, transkripční faktory, zesilovače transkripce. Buněčné dělení, kontrola buněčného cyklu
8. Molekulární základ tvorby imunitních molekul.
9. Buněčné signalizace (signální molekuly, receptory, signální dráhy). Struktura membrán, přenos látek přes membrány, komunikace mezi buňkami.
10. Změny genetické informace, mutace, obecná a místně specifická rekombinace, reparace mutačně poškozené DNA.
11. Mobilní elementy (prokaryotické a eukaryotické transpozony, retrotranspozony). Tkáně.
12. Základy genového inženýrství, příprava transgenních organismů a jejich využití, mutageneze in vitro, příprava biopreparátů metodami GI, genové terapie.
13. Základy použití biochemických metod v molekulární biologii.

Laboratory exercise

39 hours, compulsory

Teacher / Lecturer