Course detail

# Solid State Physics

FEKT-MKC-FPFAcad. year: 2021/2022

Basic concepts of quantum and atomic physics. Structure of solids. Crystal lattice. Band theory of solids. Electric charge transport. Electrons and holes in non-equilibrium state. Selected semiconductor structures, sources and detectors of radiation.

Language of instruction

Number of ECTS credits

Mode of study

Guarantor

Department

Learning outcomes of the course unit

- explain the behavior of an electron in a potential well and a potential barrier,

- describe the basic nanostructures and their applications (quantum wells, wires, dots, a single light emitting diode, a single photon detector),

- describe the basic properties of atoms,

- describe the crystal structure of solids and explain the formation of energy bands,

- describe the drift and diffusion in solids,

- compute the mobility of charge carriers from the experimental data,

- compute the lifetime of minority carriers and the diffusion length of minority carriers from the experimental data,

- apply the continuity equation and Poisson's equation,

- describe the basic types of generation and recombination processes in semiconductors,

- describe the formation and properties of a PN junction,

- describe a LED and a solar cell.

Prerequisites

Generally, the knowledge on the technical university bachelor degree level is required.

Co-requisites

Planned learning activities and teaching methods

Assesment methods and criteria linked to learning outcomes

- 25 points from the semester project (solving of given problems or elaboration of a given topic)

- 20 points from laboratories (6 reports),

- 55 points from the exam (a written part of 35 points and a verbal part of 20 points).

Students must obtain at least 10 points in the written part to proceed to the verbal part.

Students must obtain at least 5 points in the verbal part to pass the exam.

The exam is focused on the verification of basic knowledge in the field of electrical and optical properties of solids, including solving of selected problems.

Course curriculum

2) Schrödinger equation, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, potential wells and barriers, energy quantization, electron traps.

3) Atoms. Hydrogen atom, Bohr theory of hydrogen atom, quantum numbers, some properties of atoms, Pauli exclusion principle, periodic table of elements.

4) Structure of solids. Electrical properties of solids, crystalline solids, crystalline bonds, crystal lattice, crystal systems, Miller indexes.

5) Crystal lattice defects, lattice vibrations, fonons.

6) Band theory of solids. Free electron, quantum mechanical theory of solids, formation of energy bands, effective mass.

7) Distribution function, density of states, charge carrier concentration, Fermi level, insulators, metals, semiconductors, intrinsic and doped semiconductors.

8) Transport phenomena in semiconductors. Thermal and drift movement, Boltzmann transport equation, electrical conductivity, Ohm's law in differential and integral form, mobility, relaxation time, scattering mechanisms.

9) Hall effect, thermoelectric effect, Peltier effect, influence of external fields on electrical conductivity, diffusion.

10) Semiconductor in non-equilibrium state. Minority carrier lifetime, continuity equation, ambipolar mobility, diffusion length, Poisson's equation.

11) Generation and recombination of carriers, recombination centers, traps, photoelectric properties.

12) Inhomogeneous semiconductor systems. Homogeneous and heterogeneous PN junctions, capacity, VA characteristic, PN junction breakdowns.

13) Semiconductor sources and detectors of radiation. Radiative and nonradiative recombination, mechanisms of radiation excitation, LED, solar cell.

Work placements

Aims

Specification of controlled education, way of implementation and compensation for absences

Recommended optional programme components

Prerequisites and corequisites

Basic literature

KITTEL, CH. Introduction to Solid State Physics. 7th ed. Wiley, 1996. (EN)

MIŠEK, J.; KUČERA, L.; KORTÁN, J. Polovodičové zdroje optického záření. SNTL, 1988. (CS)

SEEGER, K. Semiconductor Physics. Springer Verlag, 1997. (EN)

Recommended reading

KELLY, M. J.: Low-dimensional Semiconductors. Clarendon Press, 1995. (EN)

Classification of course in study plans

#### Type of course unit

Lecture

Teacher / Lecturer

Syllabus

2)Structure of solids, crystallographic systems, crystal lattice defects, noncrystalline solids, heterojunctions, supelattices.

3)Electrons in solids: band diagrams, dispersion relation, effective mass, amorphous semiconductors, distribution function, Boltzmann transport equation, methods of its solution, transport coefficients.

4)Drift, diffusion, galvanomagnetic, thermoelectric, thermomagnetic, piezoelectric and acoustoelectric effects, nonequilibrium charge carriers, hot electrons, ballistic transport.

5)Properties of fundamental microelectronic structures: 3D structures (homojunction, heterojunction, MIS, potential barriers).

6)Properties of fundamental nanoelectronic structures: 2D, 1D, 0D structures (quantum wells, wires, points).

7)Spin effects in electronics.

8)Electromagnetic waves in crystals, isotropic, uniaxial, biaxial crystals.

9)Electromagnetic waves in semiconductors and metals, optical properties of semiconductors in external electric and magnetic field.

10)Lasers: physical principle, coherent radiation generation, different types of lasers, semiconductor lasers.

11)Nonlinear optical effects.

12)Photonic crystals: principle, properties, applications.

13)Reserve.

Laboratory exercise

Teacher / Lecturer

Syllabus

1)Introduction: basic features of computer simulators.

2)Structures of solids.

3)Hall efect and concentrations.

4)Radiation absoption.

5)Electromagnetic waves in solids.

6)Lasers.