Course detail

Physical and Chemical Base of Production of Metallic Materials

FSI-WFZAcad. year: 2019/2020

Physico-chemical principles of the production of iron based metal materials resulting from thermodynamic activity of elements and its application in metallurgical calculations. Calculations of thermodynamic equilibrium and the equilibrium constant for elements in the polycomponent solution and the gases in iron alloys. The basic metallurgical reactions running during the production of pig iron in blast furnaces and the steel production in oxygen converters cast on continuous casting equipment and during casting of ingots. Processes of steel production in electric arc and induction furnaces and in secondary metallurgy equipment. Principles of the production of high-alloy and special iron alloys. Influence of the used metallurgical treatment on steel properties, achievable contents of undesirable elements and the morphology and distribution of inclusions. Production and properties of cast irons, description of basic technologies of melting and metallurgical treatment of cast irons. Theory and practice of inoculation and modification of graphitic cast irons. Production and properties of non-ferrous metals based on aluminium, magnesium, copper and zinc. Thermophysical properties of non-ferrous metal alloys, basic melting units and the treatment technology of non-ferrous alloys. Inoculation, modification and degassing of non-ferrous metals and alloys. Nickel and titanium alloys, chemical composition, structure, properties and utilization of these alloys. Metallurgy of nickel and titanium alloys, melting units and methods for controlling their crystallization.

Learning outcomes of the course unit

The course gives the knowledge about metalurgy and foundry of iron and non-iron materials. In each of these technologies is the attention devoted to the kind of raw materials, semi-product, melting furnaces, machinery, quality and control of processes and also to the final product. The graduate obtains an orientation in the present production technologies of metals.


Basic knowledge of chemistry and metals science.


Not applicable.

Recommended optional programme components

Not applicable.

Recommended or required reading

Ductile Iron Handbook, AFS, Des Plaines, Illinois
ŠENBERGER, J.; BŮŽEK, Z.; ZÁDĚRA, A.; STRÁNSKÝ, K.; KAFKA, V. Metalurgie oceli na odlitky. Brno: VUT v Brně – Nakladatelství Vutium, 2008. 311 s. ISBN: 978-80-214-3632-9. (CS)
TURKDOGAN, E. T.: Fundamentals of steelmaking. London: The Institute of materials, 1996. ISBN 1 86125 004 5. (EN)
MYSLIVEC, T.: Fyzikálně chemické základy ocelářství. Praha: SNTL, 1972. (CS)
ALVAREZ, A. I.; DEGALLAIX-MOREUIL, S. Duplex Stainless Steels. GREAT BRITAIN, 2009, p. 437, ISBN 978-1-84821-137-7. (EN)
ROUČKA, J. Vměstky – přehled a příčiny vzniku: Vměstky ve slitinách hliníku a hodnocení čistoty kovu. 4. Holečkova konference: Trendy ve zpracování slitin neželezných kovů. První vydání. Brno: Česká slévárenská společnost, 2011. s. 117. ISBN 978-80-02-02303-6. (CS)
MICHNA, Štefan, et al. Encyklopedie hliníku. Prešov: Adin, s.r.o., 2005. ISBN 80-89041-88-4. (CS)
CAMPBELL, J. 2003. Castings. 2. vyd. Oxford: Butterworth – Heinemann, 2003, 329 s. ISBN 0-7506-4790-6. (EN)
ZEMČÍK, L. Žáropevné slitiny Niklu I. Skriptum, s. 43. (CS)

Planned learning activities and teaching methods

The course is taught through lectures explaining the basic principles and theory of the discipline. Teaching is suplemented by laboratory. There is use basic of thermodynamics computations in metallurgical practice.

Assesment methods and criteria linked to learning outcomes

Awarding the course-unit credit is conditional on active attendance at exercises. For the exam students have to past exam test. Minimum in test is 60 percent of good answer.

Language of instruction


Work placements

Not applicable.


The aim is to obtain the knowledge about metalurgy and foundry of ferrous and non-ferrous materials.

Specification of controlled education, way of implementation and compensation for absences

Attendance at lecture is recommended. Attendance at seminars is required.
Controlled presence at lessons, 1 test in the course of semester. Students agree with the course supervisor on making up for absence from classes.

Classification of course in study plans

  • Programme M2A-P Master's

    branch M-MTI , 1. year of study, winter semester, 4 credits, compulsory

Type of course unit



26 hours, optionally

Teacher / Lecturer


1. History of steel and pig iron production, the current state of metallurgical and foundry steel production.
2. Reduction of iron ores in a blast furnace, physico-chemical bases of steel production in oxygen converters. Continuous casting of steel and the production of steel ingots.
3. Classification and properties of steels, concentration of P, S, and gases in steel in dependence on the used melting unit, stainless, refractory and heat resisting steels.
4. Physico-chemical bases of steel production in electric arc furnaces. Dephosphorization, degassing, decarburization, and desulphurization of steel.
5. The principle and design of electric induction furnaces. The production of steel in electric induction and vacuum induction furnaces.
6. An overview of secondary metallurgy methods, physico-chemical conditions of secondary metallurgy processes and the influence of individual processes on steel properties.
7. Classification and properties of graphitic and carbidic cast irons. Production of lamellar graphite cast iron and spheroidal graphite cast iron in cupola and rotary gas furnaces. Oxidizing reduction reactions during cast iron melting in cupola and rotary furnaces.
8. Physico-chemical bases of cast iron melting in electric arc and induction furnaces. Melting and metallurgical treatment of high-alloy chromium and nickel cast irons in electric induction furnaces.
9. Inoculation of graphitic cast irons and its influence on structural and mechanical properties of cast irons. The heart of the matter and methods of modification of the spheroidal graphite cast iron. Operational control of metallurgical quality of cast irons.
10. Classification and properties of non-ferrous metals from the point of view of their melting and metallurgical treatment technologies, physical and chemical bases of production of aluminium alloys, melting of aluminium alloys.
11. Production and pouring of aluminium alloys castings, the heart of the matter and kinetics of degassing the aluminium alloys, the degree of gassing (Dichte Index), methods of modification and inoculation of aluminium alloys, metallurgical quality control of the aluminium alloys melts.
12. Melting and metallurgical treatment of magnesium, copper, and zinc based alloys. The use of inert gases during melting and casting of magnesium alloys. Degassing and deoxidation of copper and zinc based alloys.
13. Classification of nickel and titanium alloys from the point of view of conditions of their melting and casting, melting units for the production of titanium and nickel alloys, melting and metallurgical treatment of nickel and titanium alloys in vacuum, production of nickel and titanium based alloys castings with controlled crystallization.

Laboratory exercise

26 hours, compulsory

Teacher / Lecturer


1. Concentrations and activities of elements of the polycomponent solution, the Raoult and Henry activity, activity coefficients
2. Heat capacities and calculations of heats of mixing and reaction in the metallurgy of ferrous alloys
3. Calculations of dissociation stresses, of the solubility of gases in steel
4. Decarburizing of steel, determination of equilibrium temperature of the carbon reaction in systems of the Fe-C-Mn and Fe-C-Cr melts
5. Deoxidation of steel, determination of the equilibrium oxygen activity after deoxidation of steel with aluminium an silicon
6. Reduction reactions in ferrous alloys during the production of steel in an arc furnace, desulphurization of steel, steel alloying
7. Structure and properties of cast irons, melting of graphitic cast irons
8. Methods of inoculation and modification of graphitic cast irons
9. Operational control of cast irons – thermal analysis, mechanical and technological tests of cast irons, measurement of oxygen activity in cast irons
10. Melting, inoculation, and modification of aluminium alloys, production of castings from aluminium alloys, degassing of aluminium alloys
11. Melting and casting of magnesium alloys, production of castings from magnesium alloys
12. Melting and casting of copper and zinc alloys and production of castings from copper and zinc alloys
13. Metallurgy of nickel and titanium alloys, melting units, foundry moulds, methods of crystallization control