Course detail

Real-Time Operating Systems

FIT-ROSaAcad. year: 2017/2018

A study of concepts, techniques, and standards in embedded operating systems including real time embedded operating systems. Topics include: Introduction. Basic Real-Time Concepts. Real-Time Specification, Verification and Design. Real-Time Kernels. Intertask Communication and Synchronization. Real-Time Memory Management. System Performance Analysis and Optimization. Queuing Models. Reliability, Testing and Fault Tolerance. Multiprocessing Systems. Hardware/Software Integration. Case Studies.

Offered to foreign students

Of all faculties

Learning outcomes of the course unit

Theoretical background (specification/verification) and practical knowledge of real-time operating systems. After completing the course students will appreciate the use of multitasking techniques in real-time systems, understand the fundamental concepts of real-time operating systems, understand the features and structures of practical implementations, appreciate how application areas (e.g. safety-critical, desktop, etc.) impact on real-time operating system facilities.

Theoretical and practical orientation in the area of design cycle of real-time applications, competence to design applications based on real-time operating systems.


Knowledge of operating system (OS) basics: overview of OS architectures, OS classification, UNIX kernel knowledge, OS service call principles, shell. Context switching, multitasking. File systems, processes, virtual memory. Basic skills of programming in C.


Not applicable.

Recommended optional programme components

Not applicable.


  • Cheng, A. M. K.: Real-Time Systems: Scheduling, Analysis, and Verification. Wiley, 2002, 552 p., ISBN 0-471-18406-3.
  • Joseph, M.: Real-Time Systems Specification, Verification and Analysis. Prentice Hall, 1996, p. 278, ISBN 0-13-455297-0.
  • Krishna, C. M., Shin, K. G.: Real-Time Systems. McGraw-Hill, 1997, 448 s., ISBN 0-07-114243-6.
  • Laplante, P. A.: Real-Time Systems Design and Analysis. Wiley-IEEE Press, 2004, 528 p., ISBN 0-471-22855-9.
  • Levi, S. T., Agrawala, A. K.: Real-Time System Design. McGraw-Hill, 1990, 299 s., ISBN 0-07037-491-0.
  • Li, Q., Yao, C.: Real-Time Concepts for Embedded Systems. CMP Books, 1st Edition, 2003, 294 s., ISBN 1-57820-124-1.

  • Butazzo, G.: Hard Real-Time Computing Systems, Predictable Scheduling Algorithms and Applications. Springer, 2011, 524 p., ISBN 978-1-4614-0675-4.
  • Cottet, F., Delacroix, J., Kaiser, C., Mammeri, Z.: Scheduling in Real-Time Systems. John Wiley & Sons, 2002, 266 p., ISBN 0-470-84766-2.
  • Kopetz, H.: Real-Time Systems, Design Principles for Distributed Embedded Applications. Springer, 2011, 378 p., ISBN 978-1-4419-8236-0.
  • Labrosse, J. J.: MicroC OS II: The Real Time Kernel. Newnes, 2nd ed., 2002, 648 p., ISBN 978-1578201037.

Planned learning activities and teaching methods

Not applicable.

Assesment methods and criteria linked to learning outcomes

Study evaluation is based on marks obtained for specified items. Minimimum number of marks to pass is 50.

No conditions are applied.

Language of instruction


Work placements

Not applicable.

Course curriculum

Syllabus of lectures:

  1. Definition of basic terms related to real-time (RT) systems. Motivation.
  2. Introduction to RT specification and verification area.
  3. RT kernel architectures - typical attributes, problems and benchmarking principles.
  4. Timing analysis of RT kernels, principles of response-time analysis of particular RT kernel types.
  5. Overview and properties of common interfaces and scheduling policies in (RT)OS, priority-driven schedulers, POSIX 1003.1b.
  6. Case Studies: uC/OS-II, uC/OS-III, FreeRTOS.
  7. Case Studies: MQX, Autosar-OSEK/VDX, QNX.
  8. RT task model and introduction to RT task scheduling. RT task schedulability problem.
  9. Scheduling of independent, static- and dynamic-priority periodic RT tasks running in 1-CPU environment: RM, DM, EDF, LL.
  10. Joint scheduling of periodic, sporadic and aperiodic RT tasks using task servers.
  11. Scheduling of dependent, dynamic-priority RT tasks running in 1-CPU environment, priority inversion, blocking and deadlock prevention using resource access protocols: PIP, HLP, PCP, SRP, TBS, CBS.
  12. Mechanisms of scheduling RT tasks for architecture overload: Dover, LBESA, DASA.
  13. RT task scheduling for n-CPU environment (anomalies, RMNF, RMFF, RMBF, RMST, RMGT), fault-tolerance and low power (DVS, DPM).

Syllabus of computer exercises:
  1. Specification and verification of a simple RT system by means of UPPAAL tool.
  2. Design and implementation of a simple RT application by means of the API from uC/OS-II, FreeRTOS, MQX and/or QNX/Neutrino, POSIX 1003.1b.
  3. Comparing properties of given RTOS kernels (uC/OS-II, FreeRTOS, MQX).
  4. Introduction to Timestool and Cheddar tools for basic modeling and analysis of RT applications being described by a set of RT tasks with parameters.
  5. Utilization of TimesTool, Cheddar tools and uC/OS-II, FreeRTOS, MQX kernels for advanced analysis (e.g. examining properties of resource access protocols and scheduling policies designed for overload, multiprocessor or low-power conditions).

Syllabus - others, projects and individual work of students:
  • Individual or group project.


The primary goal of this course is to meet the participant with basics of real-time systems and to give the participant knowledge and skills necessary to design and develop embedded applications by means of real-time operating systems.

Specification of controlled education, way of implementation and compensation for absences

Following activities are monitored: attendance and activity during lectures, computer labs and progress of project-related works.

Classification of course in study plans

  • Programme IT-MGR-2 Master's

    branch MBI , any year of study, summer semester, 5 credits, elective
    branch MPV , any year of study, summer semester, 5 credits, elective
    branch MGM , any year of study, summer semester, 5 credits, elective
    branch MBS , any year of study, summer semester, 5 credits, elective
    branch MIN , any year of study, summer semester, 5 credits, elective
    branch MMI , any year of study, summer semester, 5 credits, compulsory-optional
    branch MMM , any year of study, summer semester, 5 credits, elective

  • Programme IT-MGR-1H Master's

    branch MGH , any year of study, summer semester, 5 credits, recommended

  • Programme IT-MGR-2 Master's

    branch MSK , 1. year of study, summer semester, 5 credits, compulsory-optional
    branch MIS , 2. year of study, summer semester, 5 credits, elective