Course detail

# Solid State Physics

FEKT-LFPFAcad. year: 2017/2018

Basic concepts of quantum and atomic physics. Structure of solids. Crystal lattice. Band theory of solids. Electric charge transport. Surface and interface of solids. Electromangetic waves in crystals. Crystal optics in external fields. Semiconductor sources and detectors of radiation. Lasers. Nanostructures. Nonlinear optical phenomena. Photonic crystals. Superconductivity.

Language of instruction

Number of ECTS credits

Mode of study

Guarantor

Department

Learning outcomes of the course unit

- explain the behavior of an electron in a potential well and a potential barrier,

- describe the basic properties of atoms,

- describe the crystal structure of solids and explain the formation of energy bands,

- describe the drift and diffusion in solids,

- compute the mobility of charge carriers from the experimental data,

- compute the lifetime of minority carriers and the diffusion length of minority carriers from the experimental data,

- apply the continuity equation and Poisson's equation,

- describe the basic types of generation and recombination processes in semiconductors,

- describe the formation and properties of a PN junction and a metal-semiconductor junction,

- describe the behavior of electromagnetic waves in crystals,

- describe a LED, a photodiode, a solar cell and a CCD sensor,

- explain the generation of coherent radiation in lasers,

- describe the basic nanostructures and their applications (quantum wells, wires, dots, a single light emitting diode, a single photon detector),

- explain the nonlinear optical phenomena,

- describe the basic types of photonic crystals and their applications,

- describe the phenomenon of superconductivity and its basic applications.

Prerequisites

Generally, the knowledge on the technical university bachelor degree level is required.

Co-requisites

Planned learning activities and teaching methods

Assesment methods and criteria linked to learning outcomes

- 25 points from the semester project (solving of given problems)

- 20 points from laboratories (2 reports),

- 55 points from the exam (a written part of 35 points and a verbal part of 20 points).

Students must obtain at least 10 points in the written part to proceed to the verbal part.

Students must obtain at least 5 points in the verbal part to pass the exam.

The exam is focused on the verification of basic knowledge in the field of electrical and optical properties of solids, including solving of selected problems.

Course curriculum

2) Structure of solids. Crystalline solids, crystal lattice, crystallographic system, crystal lattice defects, lattice vibrations.

3) Band theory of solids. Formation of energy bands, effective mass, distribution function, density of states, charge carrier concentration, Fermi level, metals, semiconductors and insulators.

4) Transport phenomena in semiconductors. Boltzmann transport equation, drift, electrical conductivity, relaxation time, scattering mechanisms, mobility, Hall effect, magnetoresistance, thermoelectric, Peltier effect, thermomagnetic phenomena, diffusion.

5) Semiconductor in non-equilibrium state. Ambipolar mobility, Poisson's equation, diffusion length, generation and recombination of carriers, recombination centers, traps, photoelectric properties.

6) Inhomogeneous semiconductor systems. Homogeneous and heterogeneous junctions, capacity, VA characteristic, breakdowns, metal-semiconductor contact.

7) Electromagnetic waves in solids. Origin and properties of electromagnetic waves, interaction with solids, waves in crystals, optical properties in external electric and magnetic fields.

8) Semiconductor sources and detectors of radiation. Radiative and nonradiative recombination, mechanisms of radiation excitation, LED, photodiode, solar cell, CCD sensor.

9) Lasers. Generation of coherent radiation, stimulated emission, types of lasers, gas, solid state, semiconductor lasers.

10) Nanostructures. Quantum wells, wires, dots, single light emitting diode, single photon detector, quantum computer.

11) Nonlinear optical phenomena. Optical fibers, nonlinear environment, nonlinear phenomena of the second and third-order, light scattering.

12) Photonic crystals. Principle, features, one-dimensional and two-dimensional crystal, defects, applications.

13) Superconductivity. Origin of superconductivity, types of superconductivity, high-temperature superconductivity, applications, Josephson effect, quantum Hall effect.

Work placements

Aims

Specification of controlled education, way of implementation and compensation for absences

Recommended optional programme components

Prerequisites and corequisites

Basic literature

SEEGER, K. Semiconductor Physics. Springer Verlag, 1997. (EN)

FRANK, H. Fyzika a technika polovodičů SNTL, 1990. (CS)

MIŠEK, J.; KUČERA, L.; KORTÁN, J. Polovodičové zdroje optického záření. SNTL, 1988. (CS)

Recommended reading

KELLY, M. J. Low-dimensional Semiconductors. Clarendon Press, 1995. (EN)

Classification of course in study plans

#### Type of course unit

Lecture

Teacher / Lecturer

Syllabus

2)Structure of solids, crystallographic systems, crystal lattice defects, noncrystalline solids, heterojunctions, supelattices.

3)Electrons in solids: band diagrams, dispersion relation, effective mass, amorphous semiconductors, distribution function, Boltzmann transport equation, methods of its solution, transport coefficients.

4)Drift, diffusion, galvanomagnetic, thermoelectric, thermomagnetic, piezoelectric and acoustoelectric effects, nonequilibrium charge carriers, hot electrons, ballistic transport.

5)Properties of fundamental microelectronic structures: 3D structures (homojunction, heterojunction, MIS, potential barriers).

6)Properties of fundamental nanoelectronic structures: 2D, 1D, 0D structures (quantum wells, wires, points).

7)Spin effects in electronics.

8)Electromagnetic waves in crystals, isotropic, uniaxial, biaxial crystals.

9)Electromagnetic waves in semiconductors and metals, optical properties of semiconductors in external electric and magnetic field.

10)Lasers: physical principle, coherent radiation generation, different types of lasers, semiconductor lasers.

11)Nonlinear optical effects.

12)Photonic crystals: principle, properties, applications.

13)Reserve.

Laboratory exercise

Teacher / Lecturer

Syllabus

1)Introduction: basic features of computer simulators.

2)Structures of solids.

3)Hall efect and concentrations.

4)Radiation absoption.

5)Electromagnetic waves in solids.

6)Lasers.