Course detail

Special Sensors

FEKT-MPC-SPSAcad. year: 2023/2024

The course deals with the principles of the most widely used semiconductor, optoelectronic and fiber-optic sensors. Students will learn characteristic constructions of sensors, the basic technological processes in their production, typical characteristics, parameters, usage, applications and limitations of sensors. Emphasis is also placed on familiarization with types of output circuits, data processing and signal processing from the output of these sensors . There will be discussed also a requirements for smart sensors (eg. methods of diagnostics, calibration sensors) and MEMS sensors. Students will gain practical experience with selected semiconductor photoelectric sensors and fiber in the laboratory exercises.

Language of instruction


Number of ECTS credits


Mode of study

Not applicable.

Entry knowledge

The student who enrolls this course should be able to explain the basics of semiconductor physics and optics, describe the basic principles of sensors, able to analyze and identify the electronic circuits used in the sensing and measurement technology, apply basic methods of measurement of electrical quantities (voltage, current, resistance, capacitance, inductance) and be able to assemble measuring chain with instruments as oscilloscope, function generator, DAQ cards for measuring of analog and digital signals and be able to prepare and use the LabVIEW developing tool. This course follows to courses in undergraduate studies BMVE and BSNI. Student should have such language skills to understand some educational materials in English.

Rules for evaluation and completion of the course

Laboratory exercises 0 - 40 points. Participation in the laboratory exercises and completion of the given assignments is a condition for credit.

The final exam is aimed at verifying the knowledge of the course. It has a mandatory written and an optional oral part. The written part of the final exam is 0 - 50 points, minimum 25 points. The oral part of the final examination 0 - 10 points.  

Definition of controlled education will be established by announcement published by course supervisor every year. Mandatory participation in laboratory exercises, in case of absence the exercise work can be supplemented with alternative exercise in same week or with a self-study of additional literature.


The goal of the course is to introduce and deepen students knowledge of selected types of semiconductor, photoelectric, fiber-optic, MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical), MOEMS (micro-opto-electro-mechanical) and intelligent sensors. Students will become familiar with their use in real applications, such as measurement, navigation, robotics, etc. The aim is to create an overview for students to understanding of the use of the relevant physical phenomena, measuring methods and concepts of these sensors.
The student will be able to explain the principles of semiconductor, optoelectronic and fiber-optic sensors, define the characteristics of intelligent sensors. He will be able to decide on the appropriate choice of the sensor for the particular application with respect to their characteristics and limitation. Student will be able to design circuits for signal processing from these sensors and perspectively also plan and implement a measurement chain in the real applications.

Study aids

Not applicable.

Prerequisites and corequisites

Not applicable.

Basic literature

HUSÁK, Miroslav. Mikrosenzory a mikroaktuátory. Praha: Academia, 2008. Gerstner. ISBN 978-80-200-1478-8. (CS)
GULDAN, Arnošt. Mikroelektronické senzory. Bratislava: Alfa, 1988. Pokroky v elektronike a elektrotechnike. (SK)
RIPKA, Pavel a Alois TIPEK, ed. Master books on sensors: modular courses on modern sensors Leondaro da Vinci project CZ/PP-134026. Praha: BEN - technical literature, 2003. ISBN 80-7300-129-2. (EN)
MEIJER, G. C. M. Smart sensor systems. Chichester, U.K.: J. Wiley, 2008. ISBN 0470866918. (EN)
TURÁN, Ján. Optické vláknové senzory. Praha: Tesla-Výzkumný ústav pro sdělovací techniku A. S. Popova, 1990. Mikro quo vadis. (CS)
ĎAĎO, Stanislav a Marcel KREIDL. Senzory a měřicí obvody. Vyd. 2. Praha: Vydavatelství ČVUT, 1999. ISBN 80-01-02057-6. (CS)
RIPKA, Pavel. Senzory a převodníky. 2. vyd. V Praze: České vysoké učení technické, 2011. ISBN 978-80-01-04696-8. (CS)
Smart sensors and MEMS: intelligent sensing devices and microsystems for industrial applications. Second edition. Editor Stoyan NIHTIANOV, editor Antonio LUQUE ESTEPA. Duxford: Elsevier/Woodhead Publishing, an imprint of Elsevier, [2018]. Woodhead publishing series in electronic and optical materials. ISBN 978-0-08-102055-5. (EN)
Handbook of silicon based mems materials and technologies. Third edition. Editor Markku TILLI, editor Markku TILLI, editor Mervi PAULASTO-KRÖCKEL, editor Matthias PETZOLD, editor Horst THEUSS, editor Teruaki MOTOOKA, editor Veikko LINDROOS. Amsterdam: Elsevier, [2020]. Micro and nano technologies series. ISBN 978-0-12-817786-0. (EN)
KREIDL, Marcel a Radislav ŠMÍD. Technická diagnostika: senzory, metody, analýza signálu. Praha: BEN - technická literatura, 2006. Senzory neelektrických veličin. ISBN 80-7300-158-6. (CS)

Recommended reading

SALEH, Bahaa E. A. a Malvin Carl TEICH. Základy fotoniky. Praha: Matfyzpress, 1996. ISBN 80-85863-12-X. (CS)
YEH, Chai. Handbook of fiber optics: theory and applications. San Diego: Academic Press, c1990. ISBN 0127704558. (EN)
HARRY N. NORTON. Handbook of transducers. Prentice Hall, 1989. (EN)

Classification of course in study plans

  • Programme MPC-AUD Master's

    specialization AUDM-TECH , 1. year of study, winter semester, compulsory-optional

  • Programme MPC-KAM Master's, 1. year of study, winter semester, compulsory-optional
  • Programme MPC-EVM Master's, 2. year of study, winter semester, compulsory-optional
  • Programme MPC-EKT Master's, 2. year of study, winter semester, compulsory-optional

Type of course unit



26 hours, optionally

Teacher / Lecturer


The main content of the lectures covered the following areas:
1. Materials for semiconductor sensors, basic technological processes.
2. Radiation sources - basic quantities and types of radiation sources, characteristics and wiring. LED, LD and SLED - parameter and usage.
3. Semiconductor radiation sensors - ionizing and non-ionizing radiation.
4. Semiconductor sensors of mechanical quantities - pressure sensors, accelerometers, gyroscopes.
5. Semiconductor magnetic field sensors - Hall effect, magnetoresistive sensors, AMR, GMR, magneto-diode, magneto-transistor.
6. Semiconductor temperature sensors, chemical sensors and biosensors.
7. Introduction to fiber optics - classification and properties of optical fibers. Fiber connections and connectors.
8. Optical fiber sensors - classification, properties, construction, measured quantities.
9. Measurement of physical quantities by using fiber optic sensors.
10. Smart sensors - requirements, properties, methods of linearization, self-diagnostics, calibration, IEEE 1451 standards group.

Laboratory exercise

26 hours, compulsory

Teacher / Lecturer


The content of the laboratory exercises of the MPC-SPS course is the application of MEMS inertial sensors in the project of an autonomous car, the collection of measured data from these sensors (accelerometers, gyroscopes) and the implementation of signal processing methods for optimal traversal of an unknown path. The evaluated result is a demonstration of functionality , a report on the theoretical part of the project, a report on the practical part of the project and a form of public presentation of the achieved results.