Course detail

Imaging Systems with Nonionizeing Radiation

FEKT-MPA-ZSZAcad. year: 2023/2024

The content of this course is the study of imaging systems that do not work with ionizing radiation. The course curriculum covers systems using the principle of magnetic resonance. Specifically, basic experiments in this area, basic and extended pulse sequences, principles of positional information encoding, and hardware requirements for imaging are discussed. Advanced methods such as the principles of contrast agents, functional and diffusion imaging are also discussed.  The second part of the course discusses the principles of using ultrasound waves for imaging. The various imaging modalities used in clinical imaging are discussed - A-scan, B-scan, Doppler techniques, and the use of contrast agents. In the last part of the course, thermal relief imaging using thermal imaging cameras is discussed. The principles of microbolemtric detectors, the use of 2D detectors and the representation of the resulting information are explained. Other techniques in the visible part of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum are described at the end of the semester. Furthermore, the parameters of the imaging process as such and the quality assessment of imaging systems are discussed. 

Language of instruction


Number of ECTS credits


Mode of study

Not applicable.

Offered to foreign students

Of all faculties

Entry knowledge

Basic knowledge of mathematics, physics, and signal and image processing theory at the undergraduate level is required. 

Rules for evaluation and completion of the course

Laboratory assignments and output of the computer labs are assessed during the semester. The course concludes with an examination combining written and oral parts. 
Further information is contained in an updated course Statement which is issued before the start of the semester by the course supervisor.   


The aim of this course is to extend the knowledge from the Bachelor's degree in Medical Physics and Imaging Systems. This course focuses on the use of non-ionizing radiation in medical imaging. The first part of the course discusses the fundamentals of the magnetic resonance phenomenon and its application to medical imaging. The second half of the course discusses the principles of ultrasound waves for medical imaging, the principles of thermal cameras, and other techniques in the visible part of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum.  

Study aids

Study materials are available in e-learning. 

Prerequisites and corequisites

Not applicable.

Basic literature

Brown R.W. et al: Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Physical Principles and Sequence Design 2nd Edition, Wiley-Blackwell, 2014 (EN)
Bernstein M.A. et al: Handbook of MRI Pulse Sequences, Academia Press, 2004 (EN)
Edelman S.K.: Understanding Ultrasound Physics, 4th edition, Ultrasound, 2012 (EN)
HILL, C. R, J. C BAMBER a G. ter HAAR. Physical principles of medical ultrasonics. 2nd ed. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley, c2004. ISBN 978-0-471-97002-6. (CS)
MCROBBIE, Donald W. MRI from picture to proton. 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0521683845. (CS)
BRONZINO, Joseph D. The biomedical engineering handbook. Medical Devices and Systems. 3rd ed. Boca Raton: CRC/Taylor & Francis, 2006. ISBN 0849321220. (CS)
JERROLD T. BUSHBERG .. Essential physics of medical imaging. 3. ed., Internat. ed. S.l.: Lippincott Williams And W, 2011. ISBN 9781451118100. (CS)

Recommended reading

Not applicable.


Classification of course in study plans

  • Programme MPC-BIO Master's, 1. year of study, summer semester, compulsory
  • Programme MPAD-BIO Master's, 1. year of study, summer semester, compulsory

Type of course unit



26 hours, optionally

Teacher / Lecturer


1. Magnetic resonance phenomenon - history, applications for spectroscopy and imaging. Physical principles of magnetic resonance - quantum mechanical model, vector model, precession, Bloch equations, relaxation. 
2. Basic NMR experiments - excitation, FID signal, spin echo, gradient echo, acquisition parameters - repetition time, TE time, image weighting T1 and T2 times. 
3. NMR hardware - main magnet design, permanent and superconducting magnet, active and passive shimming, B0 field homogeneity, gradient coils, RF coils for various applications. 
4. NMR imaging - from proton to image, tomographic plane (slice) selection, k-space, frequency and phase position coding, image reconstruction. 
5. Pulse sequences - spin echo, gradient echo, inversion recovery, saturation recovery, fast sequences - multi-shot and multi-band, EPI. 
6. Special applications - use of contrast agents, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion MRI, arterial spin labelling (ASL), perfusion techniques - DCE and DSC, NMR spectroscopy.
7. Use of ultrasonic waves in diagnostics - wave equation, description of ultrasonic wave based on acoustic pressure change, processes at the interface of two substances with different acoustic impedance, generation of ultrasonic wave - magnetostrictive or piezoelectric transducers, basic idea of imaging. 
8. Ultrasound system - block diagram, ultrasound probe - linear, convex and phased array probes, different methods of probe construction and excitation, probe focusing, basic ultrasound signal processing chain, TGC amplifier, data conversion, imaging unit, basic imaging modes - A mode, B mode, 3D imaging, TM mode, basic artifacts and achievable imaging parameters. 
9. Advanced imaging techniques - use of Doppler effect - continuous and pulsed Doppler, colour and power Doppler, contrast agents for ultrasonography, use of contrast agents, perfusion imaging - various techniques, qualitative and quantitative techniques, static and dynamic elastography, ultrasound transmission/reflection tomography, breast ultrasound, photoacoustic imaging. 
10. Endoscopy - principle, examination requirements, basic types of endoscope design - endoscopic mirrors, rigid, flexible (fibroscope), working channels, endoscopic capsule, endoscopic ultrasound (transesophageal echocardiography, vaginal ultrasound), intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) - comparison with coronary angiography. CT virtual endoscopy. 
11. Infrared imaging systems - basic definition of the terms thermography, noctovision, physical principles related to radiation - Planck's radiation law, Wien's displacement law, Stefan-Boltzmann law, emissivity, absolute black body, radiation scheme - influence of ambient effects, influence of atmospheric transmission and others. 
12. Infrared imaging systems - design principles - optical systems for infrared radiation - lenses, lenses, radiation detection - selective (photon) and non-selective (thermal) detectors, advantages and disadvantages of different solutions, requirements for cooling and thermal stabilization of detectors, design of microbolometric 2D FPA sensors, applications in medicine, parameters of commonly available thermal cameras.  

Exercise in computer lab

13 hours, compulsory

Teacher / Lecturer


Set of following PC labs:

  1. MTF estimation of real imaging system. Contrast conversion to image brightness.
  2. Simulation of different types of ultrasound probe excitation – phased array and linear probe.
  3. Processing of raw ultrasound data, harmonic imaging.
  4. Simulation of basic pulse sequences – effect of various acquisition times (TR, TE, TI) to final image.
  5. Signal/Image processing for MR relaxometry – evaluation of T1 time.  


Laboratory exercise

13 hours, optionally

Teacher / Lecturer


Set of following laboratories:

  1. Practical measurements with ultrasound system - image quality assesment in various acquisition parameters.
  2. Estimation of blood velocity by Doppler ultrasound.
  3. Evaluation of dynamic thermal images.
  4. Practical MR measurement – estimation of SNR in image data.
  5. Practical MR measurement – evaluation of diffusion data.