Course detail

Recording Studio Technology

FEKT-BPC-STEAcad. year: 2023/2024

The course focuses on the transmission of audio signals in an electrical system, A/D and D/A conversion and digital processing of audio signals, the structure and use of a mixing console, digital mixing consoles, measurement and indication of level, spectrum and amplitude envelopes of audio signals, digital audio interfaces and digital recording of audio signals, audio effects, control of studio equipment using the MIDI protocol and others, relative and absolute synchronization codes and computer audio processing systems. Laboratory exercises are focused on mastering work with mixing desks and other studio equipment and measuring their parameters and characteristics. 

Language of instruction


Number of ECTS credits


Mode of study

Not applicable.

Entry knowledge

The knowledge of basic laws and quantities in electrical circuits is required as well as the knowledge of the characteristics of electric circuit elements, circuit behaviour with inertia elements, circuit topologies with operational amplifiers and their characteristics, periodical and non-periodical signal spectra, continuous- and discrete-time systems. The student who enrols on the course should be able to use instruments for the measurement of electrical voltage and current, waveform generators and oscilloscopes.

Rules for evaluation and completion of the course

Evaluation of study results follows the Rules for Studies and Examinations of BUT and the Dean's Regulation complementing the Rules for Studies and Examinations of BUT. Up to 30 points are awarded for correct results and elaboration of all laboratory exercises and up to 10 points are awarded for tests in theoretical knowledge in laboratory exercises. The minimal scope of the elaboration of particular laboratory exercises and complementary questions are specified by a regulation issued by the guarantor of the course and updated for every academic year. Up to 40 points are given for the final written examination and it is necessary to get at least 20 points for its successful completion. Up to 20 points are awarded for the final oral examination which consists of 10 groups of questions according to the course syllabus.

It is obligatory to work through all laboratory exercises to a minimum extent in regular or alternative terms to complete the course. Other forms of checked instruction are specified by a regulation issued by the guarantor of the course and updated for every academic year.


The aim of the course is to make students familiar with the operation principle and use of analog and digital audio equipment, computer digital audio workstations and their installation in sound studios.
After course completion, students are to:
- describe the structure of the mixing console, explain its operation and use it for recording or sound reinforcement,
- explain the principles of measurement of level and other parameters of analog and digital audio signals,
- describe the structure and operation principle of the basic types of audio effects and use them for audio processing,
- explain the principle of digital audio signal processing and transmission,
- explain the principle and structure of digital audio signal hard disc recording (HDR),
- describe the structure of various types of audio interfaces and structure of digital audio workstations (DAW),
- describe the structure of the MIDI protocol, enumerate the messages it uses, and use them for controlling studio equipment,
- describe the types of synchronization signal, choose the proper type of synchronization for a given system,
- describe the structure of the DMX512 protocol and use it for controlling light and stage equipment.

Study aids

Not applicable.

Prerequisites and corequisites

Not applicable.

Basic literature

SCHIMMEL, J. Studiová a hudební elektronika. Studiová a hudební elektronika. Brno, Vysoké učení technické v Brně. 2012. (158 p.). ISBN 978-80-214-4452-2.
Watkinson, J.: The Art of Digital Audio, 3rd ed. Focal Press, 2001. ISBN 0-240-51587-0 (EN)
REISS, Joshua D a Andrew P MCPHERSON. Audio effects: theory, implementation and application. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2014, xiii, 353 s. ISBN 978-1-4665-6028-4 (CS)

Recommended reading

Zölzer, U.: DAFX - Digital Audio Effects (Second Edition). John Wiley & Sons, 2011. ISBN: 978-0-470-66599-2. Zölzer, U.: DAFX - Digital Audio Effects (Second Edition). John Wiley & Sons, 2011. ISBN: 978-0-470-66599-2. (EN)
Forró, D.: Počítače a hudba,Grada, Praha 1994 (CS)


Classification of course in study plans

  • Programme BPC-TLI Bachelor's, any year of study, summer semester, elective

  • Programme BPC-AUD Bachelor's

    specialization AUDB-ZVUK , 2. year of study, summer semester, compulsory
    specialization AUDB-TECH , 2. year of study, summer semester, compulsory

Type of course unit



26 hours, optionally

Teacher / Lecturer


  1. Sound waves: audio signals and systems, sound propagation and perception.
  2. Audio signals in the electrical system: audio signal levels, connection of audio devices, transmission of multi-channel audio signals, audio signal distribution in the electrical system.
  3. Audio devices: basic parameters of analog and digital audio devices, normalization of signal level, installation of audio devices.
  4. Digital audio signals: AD and DA conversion of audio signals, digital audio signal formats, basic operations with digital audio signals.
  5. Measurement and display of audio signal properties: level indication, loudness measurement, spectrum display, indicators for stereophonic and surround sound signals.
  6. Mixing desk: block diagram, split and in-line architecture, input and output units, buses, digital mixer.
  7. Digital audio recording: linear and non-linear digital audio recording, HDR systems, computer DAW systems, sound cards, basic procedures of non-linear audio recording, audio files.
  8. Digital audio interfaces: time-division multiplex, sync codes, point-to-point interfaces (AES3, SPDIF, MADI, ADAT), network interfaces (EtherSound, AES50, Dante, AVB), bus interfaces
  9. Audio effects 1: control circuits, frequency filtering, dynamic processors, delay line effects, modulation effects.
  10. Audio effects 2: spatial sound effects, simulation of acoustic spaces, non-linear audio effects, changing the length and pitch of the audio signal.
  11. Control and synchronization of studio equipment: MIDI interface, DMX512, ACN, ArtNet, Sony 9-pin, synchronization of studio equipment, SMPTE / EBU code, MIDI Time Clock.
  12. Computer audio processing systems: real-time audio signal processing, plug-in technology, host-based and DSP-based systems for PC audio processing. 

Laboratory exercise

39 hours, compulsory

Teacher / Lecturer


  • Getting familiar with the laboratory, numerical exercises
  • task no. 1: Signal routing in an analog mixing console
  • task no. 2: Measurement of sound card and mixing desk parameters
  • task no. 3: Signal routing in a digital mixing desk
  • task no. 4: Digital audio hard disk recording
  • task no. 5: Audio effects with a delay line
  • task no. 6: Audio effects for adjusting the dynamics of the signal
  • task no. 7: Audio effects with linear and non-linear filters
  • task no. 8: Connecting studio devices using the Dante network
  • task no. 9: Control of audio effects using MIDI protocol
  • task no. 10: Control of stage technology using DMX protocol
  • Alternate date of measurement, test from laboratory exercises