Course detail

Principles of Equipment for Physical Technologies

FSI-TPZ-AAcad. year: 2023/2024

The course gives summary of high technologies for deposition of thin films and multilayers, coatings, etching of surfaces, doping, annealing of materials and fabrication of nanostructures. Course primarily gives an explanation of physical principles of these processes and describes physical background of the corresponding experimental tools.

Language of instruction


Number of ECTS credits


Mode of study

Not applicable.

Offered to foreign students

Of all faculties

Entry knowledge

Atomic Physics, Solid State Physics, Quantum Physics, Statistical Physics and Thermodynamics, Vacuum Physics and Technology.

Rules for evaluation and completion of the course

The class ticket (credit) is obtained according to the performance and quality of work at practice lessons (individually calculated examples and a project). At the examination the performance of students throughout tutorials will be taken into account, consultation of teaching materials, textbooks and notes during writing a test is allowed. At the oral part of the exam discussions on physical principles of vacuum technologies and relevant experimental facilities will be carried out.
The presence of students at practice is obligatory and is monitored by a tutor. The way how to compensate missed practice lessons will be decided by a tutor.


To provide students basic knowledge on modern methods of thin film/multilayer fabrication and other state-of-the-art technologies (e.g. nanostructure fabrication).
The course will help a student to get basic knowledge on modern vacuum technologies and, hence, to choose a diploma and/or PhD project.

Study aids

Not applicable.

Prerequisites and corequisites

Not applicable.

Basic literature

BRODIE, I. - MURAY, J. J.: The Physics of Micro/Nano-Fabrication
CHEN, F. F.: Úvod do fyziky plazmatu
VÁLYI, L.: Atom and Ion Sources
L. ECKERTOVÁ: Fyzikální elektronika pevných látek, Karolinum, Praha 1992 (CS)
J. C. RIVIERE: Surface Analytical Techniques, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1990 (EN)
D. HALLIDAY, R. RESNICK, J. WALKER: Fyzika. (2. přepracované vydání.) VUTIUM, Brno 2013 (CS)

Recommended reading

ECKERTOVÁ, L.: Fyzika tenkých vrstev
ECKERTOVÁ, L.: Elektronika povrchů
RIVIERE, J. C.: Surface Analytical Techniques


Classification of course in study plans

  • Programme B-STI-Z Bachelor's, 1. year of study, summer semester, recommended
  • Programme B-FIN-P Bachelor's, 3. year of study, summer semester, compulsory

Type of course unit



26 hours, optionally

Teacher / Lecturer


Introduction to physical technologies.
Summary and characterization of selected physical technologies and analytical methods.
Application of physical technologies: from surfaces to nanotechnologies.
Principles and tools of physical technologies.
Electron sources (Electron emission, Extraction and forming of electron beams, Particle optical aberrations, Design of electron beam sources).
Ion beam sources (Ion preparation methods, Electron impact ion beam sources, Plasma, Ion extraction from plasma, Extraction ad forming of ion beams, Ion beam parameters, Plasma ion beam sources).
Atomic and molecular beam sources (Atomic source overview, Gas effusion, Angular distribution of particle flux from the slit, Emissive diagram of neutral beam particle sources, Collimator, Thermal atomic beam sources).
Fundamentals of particle optics (Analogy between particle and geometrical optics, Laplace equation, Paraxial equation of trajectory, Role of lenses in particle optics, Analytical methods in particle optics, Particles in magnetic fields, Scheme of the simple particle optic system, Distribution of the potential on the axis, Computer simulation of ion and electron beams, Space charge).
Interaction of particles with solids (Interaction of electrons and ions with surfaces, Scattering, Sputtering, Channelling, Interaction spectra)
Physical technologies (Deposition of thin films and coatings: CVD, PECVD, PVD, magnetron sputtering, ion beam sputtering, direct ion beam deposition, plasma and ion beam etching, lithography, implantation, epitaxy: MBE, MOMBE).
New trends in physical technologies.


6 hours, compulsory

Teacher / Lecturer


In addition to calculation of supportive theoretical examples (taking place during the whole semester), the students work on individual projects (computer code SIMION).

Computer-assisted exercise

7 hours, compulsory

Teacher / Lecturer


At practicing in a computational lab the students will learn to use a computer code SIMION for a design of optical systems of electron and ion beam facilities.