Course detail

Technology of Low Dimensional Structures

FSI-TNSAcad. year: 2023/2024

Fabrication of nanomaterials and nanostructures (0D, 1D, 2D). Top-down and bottom-up approaches. Analytical techniques in nanotechnology. Physics behond the nanotechnology, measurements at nanoscale. Examples of materials, heterostructures and their applications in electronics and optoelectronics.

Language of instruction


Number of ECTS credits


Mode of study

Not applicable.

Entry knowledge

Atomic Physics, Quantum Physics, Solid State Physics, partially Statistical Physics and Thermodynamics.

Rules for evaluation and completion of the course

The assessment of a student is made upon a quality of a discussion on topics selected at the colloquium (lecture notes allowed at preparation).

The presence of students at practice is obligatory and is monitored by a tutor. The way how to compensate missed practice lessons will be decided by a tutor depending on the range and content of the missed lessons.


The emphases will be put to qualitative analysis of physical phenomena, explanation of basic properties of solids using microscopic models and of physical principles of selected experimental methods common in research of materials.

Student gets a wide knowledge on basic technologies for fabrication of nanoscale materials and nanostructures, about analytical techniques and related physical principles. Finally, current and future applications in devices are presented as well.

Study aids

Not applicable.

Prerequisites and corequisites

Not applicable.

Basic literature

KITTEL, C: Introduction to solid state physics (EN)
DEKKER, A. J.: Solid state physics (EN)
BLAKEMORE, J. S.: Solid State Physics 1997 (EN)

Recommended reading

W. A. Goddard, III, D. W. Brenner, S. E. Lyshevski, G. J. Iafrate (Ed.) Handbook of Nanoscience, Engineering and Technology


Classification of course in study plans

  • Programme B-FIN-P Bachelor's, 3. year of study, summer semester, compulsory-optional

Type of course unit



26 hours, compulsory

Teacher / Lecturer


Lecture 1 - Introduction to low-dimensional structures, bottom-up and self-assembly. General introduction, quantum dots, fullerenes, nanowires, 2D materials, chemical approaches to growth, physical approaches to growth, self-assembly

Lecture 2 - Top-down technology, Hybrid approaches. SPM-based lithography, Resist based technology (optical and electron beam lithography), hybrid approaches to assembly)

Lecture 3 - Magnetron/Ion Beam sputtering, evaporation and spintronics. Different thin film growth strategies, ranging from evaporation to sputtering techniques. Epitaxial films and heterostructures. Semiconductor multilayer structures and magnetic recording media.

Lecture 4 - Molecular beam epitaxy. Molecular beam epitaxy will be explained with emphasis on applications in solid state lasers

Lecture 5 - Etching and Chemical Vapor Deposition. Wet and dry etching will be briefly discussed. Chemical Vapor Deposition will be explained, including doping in nanostructures and blue diode story.

Lecture 6 - Atomic Layer Deposition. The lecture will provide a brief overview of technology used in semiconductor industry. Most important technological landmarks will be introduced, with emphasis on Atomic Layer Deposition.

Lecture 7 - Focused Particle Beam enhanced lithography. Interactions of primary ions with condensed matter, focused ion beam system technology, micro- and nanofabrication, focused ion beam induced processes and general and special applications of FIB

Lecture 8 - Composition and structure of low dimensional structures. A general overview on the structural and composition analysis tools of thin films and nanostructures will be given, including x-ray diffraction, spectroscopic ellipsometry, SEM/TEM, and surface science analytical techniques with high spatial resolution.

Laboratory exercise

3 hours, compulsory

Teacher / Lecturer


Laboratory courses: behaviour in clean room, optical lithography and deposition of thin films, electrical measurements


7 hours, compulsory

Teacher / Lecturer


The calculation of supportive theoretical examples and practical demonstrations and testing take place during the whole semester.

Computer-assisted exercise

3 hours, optionally

Teacher / Lecturer


See seminars.