Course detail

Physiological Optics

FSI-TF0Acad. year: 2023/2024

The optional course PHYSIOLOGICAL OPTICS takes the form of lectures and completes and extends education of physical engineers in the field of optics giving greater details in composition and function of the human eye. It provides students with information about the physiological construction of the human eye described as an optical transformation system. Also dealt with is the accommodation of the eye, sensibility of the eye, the limit of resolution of the human eye, as well as methods for its measuring. The optical aberrations of the eye are described and the processes for their compensation are proposed.

Language of instruction


Number of ECTS credits


Mode of study

Not applicable.

Entry knowledge

Basic principles of geometrical optics

Rules for evaluation and completion of the course

Course-unit credit is awarded on condition of having attended the final discussion.
Attendance at lectures is not obligatory.


The aim of the course PHYSIOLOGICAL OPTICS is to familiarise students with the optical construction of the human eye. They will learn about possible refraction aberrations (myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia, astigmatism, anisometropia, aphakia) and ways of correction of those aberrations with optical aids.
Students of the course PHYSIOLOGICAL OPTICS will acquire the fundamental knowledge in the science of eyesight. They will be made familiar with the human eye ametropia and prepared to propose total optometrical correction.

Study aids

Not applicable.

Prerequisites and corequisites

Not applicable.

Basic literature

BOUTRY, G. A.: Instrumental Optics-The Human Eye, Hilger-Watts, London, 1961.
KEPRT, E.: Teorie optických přístrojů III- Oko a jeho korekce, SPN, Praha, 1966.
SYKA, J., VOLDŘICH, L., VRABEC, F.: Fyziologie a patofyziologie zraku a sluchu. AVICEUM, Praha, 1981.

Recommended reading

RUTRLE,M.: Brýlová optika, IDVPZ, Brno, 1993
AUTRATA, R., VANČUROVÁ, J.: Nauka o zraku. IDVPZ, Brno, 2002.
SYNEK,S., SKORKOVSKA,Š.: Fyziologie oka a vidění, GRADA Publising, Praha, 2004.

Classification of course in study plans

  • Programme B-FIN-P Bachelor's, 3. year of study, summer semester, elective

Type of course unit



13 hours, optionally

Teacher / Lecturer


Morphology of human eye and the way of vision, psychophysics of colour vision
Gullstrand’s schematic eye, cornea and crystalline lens-system of eye, geometric-optical calculation of Gullstrand’s schematic eye in paraxial area as a multi-elements optical system
Anatomy of the human eye, photopic and scotopic vision, magnitude of picture on the retina, limit of resolution for the human eye, visual factor, conception of optical types
Emetropic, myopic and hypermetropic eye. The far point, the near point, axial refraction, interval and breadth of accommodation
Myopic eye. Axis and system myopia, aetiology of myopia and its correction, magnitude of picture on the retina
Hypermetropic eye. Axis and system hypermetropia, optical anatomy symptoms of hypermetropia and its correction
Aphakic eye. Correction of aphakia by the spectacle lens, contact lens, intracameral and intraocular lens
Accommodation of human eye. Measurement of accommodation, diagram of Duane, optical scheme of accommodation procedure at myopia and hypermetropia
Spectacle lenses. Bi, plane, periscopic and meniscus spectacle lenses, stigmatic lenses, Petzval surface, Petzval-Coddington condition, astigmatism of a thin lens, Tscherning’s ellipse
Bifocal spectacle lenses. Main work point, accommodation intervals
Multifocal spectacle lenses. Construction, width of central zone, hard and soft type of lens
Astigmatism of human eye. Aetiology of astigmatism, classification and correction of eye’s astigmatism. Cylindrical and torical spectacle lenses, principles of recalculation of astigmatic combinations