Course detail

Low Power Electrical Sources

FEKT-MPC-MZEAcad. year: 2022/2023

The course is focused on the use of small power sources in terms of sustainable development. They are specified the possibility of using solar, wind and hydro plants in our country with according to applicable law. It is also clarified the issue of cogeneration of low power and possibilities of using other alternative sources of energy, such as heat pumps.

Language of instruction


Number of ECTS credits


Mode of study

Not applicable.

Learning outcomes of the course unit

Graduate of this course is able to:
- Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of renewable energy sources
- Design photovoltaic plants
- Design small hydropower plants
- Perform basic design of energy systems with renewable energy sources
- Discuss and clarify the impact of renewable energy on the electricity grid
- Professionally evaluate the properties of hybrid energy systems


The subject knowledge on the Bachelor´s degree level is requested.
Students must be able to explain and clarify the following issues:
- Structure and the parting of electric power system
- Basic terminology of power engineering
- Principle of power generation


Not applicable.

Planned learning activities and teaching methods

Teaching methods depend on the type of course unit as specified in the article 7 of BUT Rules for Studies and Examinations.
Teaching consists of lectures, computer laboratories and practical labs. The communication platform of the course is on e-learning. Students handed over three individual projects and attend for five laboratory exercises. The course also includes two expert excursions.

Assesment methods and criteria linked to learning outcomes

- one semestral project - 15 points
- one homework - 5 points
- six laboratory projects - 30 points (for each task is an entry test per 1 point - 0.5 is minimum for graduation)
- final exam max. 50 points - practical (20 points) and oral (30 points) part

The necessary condition to get credits is to obtain at least 30 points in evaluated activities.

Course curriculum

1. Introduction to small sources, performance balance, energy potential, photovoltaic systems-Present and Future
2. Proposal for photovoltaic systems
3. Regulators and inverters, internal wiring, control and communication capabilities
4. Fundamentals of EMC, conditions and consequences of connecting small sources with inverters and regulators
5. Accumulation of electricity - types of batteries, function principles, balancing systems, communication and control
6. Solar thermal power plants, thermal energy storage
7. Heat pumps - function principle, heating factor, integration into thermal systems, operating modes
8. Wind power - wind conditions of Europe and in the Czech Republic (wind energy potential in the country), types of wind turbines, electrical and operating parameters
9. Wind power - control of wind power, the effects of WP on power system operation, integration of WP in power system, operation economy
10. Small hydropower plants - operational and electrical parameters, integration of the SHP into the electricity system, energy potential of the watercourses in the Czech Republic, basic distribution of the SHP, basic hydrological calculations
11. Cogeneration units - construction, power supply connection, start cycle analysis and operational characteristics
12. Biomass - the use of biofuels for small power plants, sources of biomass co-burning of biomass, economic assessment systems
13. Energy systems for modern construction, design of energy resources, further development

Laboratory exercises:
1. Hybrid system analysis
2. Operational measurement of PVS
3. Verification of Savonius rotor properties
4. Measurement of HP operating parameters
5. Performance characteristics of power flow controllers
6. Operating characteristics of the inverters
7. Excursions to PVS and WPP or SHP

Computer exercises:
- procedures for data analysis and processing, SMA, Fronius programs
- example of PVS realization, hybrid system PVS + WPP
- GUI in Matlab, creation of graphical outputs
- Semester project

Work placements

Not applicable.


Introducing students with the opportunities and potential of utilization of small power sources such as solar, wind, hydro and cogeneration systems in terms of sustainable development. Clarify the issue of integrating these sources into power systems and describe their impact on the operation of the electricity system.

Specification of controlled education, way of implementation and compensation for absences

The content and forms of instruction in the evaluated course are specified by a regulation issued by the lecturer responsible for the course and updated for every academic year.

Recommended optional programme components

Not applicable.

Prerequisites and corequisites

Not applicable.

Basic literature

Mastný, P.; Morávek, J.; Pitron, J.; Malé zdroje elektrické energie, Skriptum, VUT v Brně FEKT UEEN, 2015 (CS)
MASTNÝ, P.; DRÁPELA, J.; MACHÁČEK, J.; PTÁČEK, M.; RADIL, L.; BARTOŠÍK, T.; PAVELKA, T.; MIŠÁK, S. Obnovitelné zdroje elektrické energie. EFEKT. Praha, České vysoké učení technické v Praze. 2011. 256 p. ISBN 978-80-01-04937-2. (CS)

Recommended reading

Krbek,J. Polesný,B.: Malé kogenerační jednotky v komunální a průmyslové energetice, PC-DIR, 1999 (CS)
Gabriel,P., Kučerová,J.:Navrhování vodních elektráren, ČVUT Praha 2000 (CS)
Rychetník,V., Pavelka,J., Janoušek,J.:Větrné motory a elektrárny, ČVUT 1997 (CS)


Classification of course in study plans

  • Programme MPC-EEN Master's, 1. year of study, winter semester, compulsory-optional
  • Programme MPC-EVM Master's, 2. year of study, winter semester, compulsory-optional

Type of course unit



26 hours, optionally

Teacher / Lecturer


1. Introduction into the field of small power sources, efficiency balance of small power sources, energy potential within the Czech Republic
2. Small water power plants - energy potential of water flows within the Czech Republic, basic distribution of small water plants, basic hydrological computations
3. Small water power plants - operation and electric parameters, incorporation of small water plants into electricity supply system. Semestral project assignment
4. Wind power plants - wind conditions within the European Union and the Czech Republic (energy potential of wind in the Czech Republic), the types of wind power plants, operation and electrical parameters
5. Wind power plants - regulation of wind motors, influences of wind power plants on the operation of electricity supply system, operation economy
6. Solar energy - introduction into helio-energetics, the advantages and disadvantages of solar energy, fotovoltaic transformation
7. Photovoltaic power plants - construction of solar power plants, incorporation of solar power plants into the electricity supply system, semestral project assignment
8. Co-generation units (CU) of low efficiency, used machine unit of CU, the construction of units
9. Co-generation units - incorporation into supply network, analysis of starting cycle and operation parameters
10. Biomass - usage of bio-fuel within small power plants, the sources of biomass, combined combustion of biomass, economic evaluation of the systems
11. Fuel elements - the principal of its function, possibilities of fuel elements usage, hydrogen management
12. Heat pumps - the principal of its function, possibilities of its usage, determination of energetic heating factor
13. Other technologies usable within small power plants, Stirling's motor, thermocouples, economic evaluation of systems

Exercise in computer lab

6 hours, optionally

Teacher / Lecturer


A simulation of an asynchronous generator's operation on a PC
Electric power calculation on a PC.
The harmonic analysis and the evaluation of the connection of a small power station to the supply network.

Laboratory exercise

20 hours, compulsory

Teacher / Lecturer


- measuring of operational characteristics of water power plants
- loading characteristics of photovoltaic panels
- fuel elements characteristics
- operation states and characteristics of heat pump