Solid State Physics
FEKT-MPA-FPFAcad. year: 2022/2023
Basic concepts of quantum and atomic physics. Structure of solids. Crystal lattice. Band theory of solids. Electric charge transport. Electrons and holes in non-equilibrium state. Selected semiconductor structures, sources and detectors of radiation.
Learning outcomes of the course unit
- explain the behavior of an electron in a potential well and a potential barrier,
- describe the basic nanostructures and their applications (quantum wells, wires, dots, a single light emitting diode, a single photon detector),
- describe the basic properties of atoms,
- describe the crystal structure of solids and explain the formation of energy bands,
- describe the drift and diffusion in solids,
- compute the mobility of charge carriers from the experimental data,
- compute the lifetime of minority carriers and the diffusion length of minority carriers from the experimental data,
- apply the continuity equation and Poisson's equation,
- describe the basic types of generation and recombination processes in semiconductors,
- describe the formation and properties of a PN junction,
- describe a LED and a solar cell.
Generally, the knowledge on the technical university bachelor degree level is required.
Recommended optional programme components
Singh, J.: Physics of Semiconductors and Their Hetero-structures. McGraw-Hill, 1992. ISBN: 978-0070576070 (EN)
Seeger, K.: Semiconductor Physics. Springer Verlag, 1982, ISBN: 978-3540114215 (EN)
Davies, J., H.: The Physics of Low-dimensional Semiconductors. Cambridge University Press, 1997, ISBN: 978-0521484916 (EN)
Kelly, M., J.: Low-dimensional Semiconductors. Clarendon Press, 1996, ISBN: 978-0198517801 (EN)
Runyan, W., R., Shafner, T., J.: Semiconductor Measurements and Instrumentation. McGraw-Hill, 1998, ISBN: 978-0070576971 (EN)
Schroder, D., K.: Semiconductor Material and Devices Characterization, 3rd Edition. Wiley, 2015, ISBN: 978-0471739067 (EN)
Planned learning activities and teaching methods
Assesment methods and criteria linked to learning outcomes
- 25 points from the semester project (solving of given problems or elaboration of a given topic)
- 20 points from laboratories (6 reports),
- 55 points from the exam (a written part of 35 points and a verbal part of 20 points).
Students must obtain at least 10 points in the written part to proceed to the verbal part.
Students must obtain at least 5 points in the verbal part to pass the exam.
The exam is focused on the verification of basic knowledge in the field of electrical and optical properties of solids, including solving of selected problems.
Language of instruction
2) Schrödinger equation, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, potential wells and barriers, energy quantization, electron traps.
3) Atoms. Hydrogen atom, Bohr theory of hydrogen atom, quantum numbers, some properties of atoms, Pauli exclusion principle, periodic table of elements.
4) Structure of solids. Electrical properties of solids, crystalline solids, crystalline bonds, crystal lattice, crystal systems, Miller indexes.
5) Crystal lattice defects, lattice vibrations, fonons.
6) Band theory of solids. Free electron, quantum mechanical theory of solids, formation of energy bands, effective mass.
7) Distribution function, density of states, charge carrier concentration, Fermi level, insulators, metals, semiconductors, intrinsic and doped semiconductors.
8) Transport phenomena in semiconductors. Thermal and drift movement, Boltzmann transport equation, electrical conductivity, Ohm's law in differential and integral form, mobility, relaxation time, scattering mechanisms.
9) Hall effect, thermoelectric effect, Peltier effect, influence of external fields on electrical conductivity, diffusion.
10) Semiconductor in non-equilibrium state. Minority carrier lifetime, continuity equation, ambipolar mobility, diffusion length, Poisson's equation.
11) Generation and recombination of carriers, recombination centers, traps, photoelectric properties.
12) Inhomogeneous semiconductor systems. Homogeneous and heterogeneous PN junctions, capacity, VA characteristic, PN junction breakdowns.
13) Semiconductor sources and detectors of radiation. Radiative and nonradiative recombination, mechanisms of radiation excitation, LED, solar cell.
Specification of controlled education, way of implementation and compensation for absences
Classification of course in study plans
- Programme MPA-CAN Master's, any year of study, summer semester, 5 credits, elective
- Programme MPAD-CAN Master's, any year of study, summer semester, 5 credits, elective
- Programme MPC-EVM Master's, any year of study, summer semester, 5 credits, elective
- Programme MPC-MEL Master's, any year of study, summer semester, 5 credits, elective
- Programme MPA-SAP Master's, any year of study, summer semester, 5 credits, elective
- Programme MPA-MEL Master's, 1. year of study, summer semester, 5 credits, compulsory-optional
- Programme MPAD-MEL Master's, 1. year of study, summer semester, 5 credits, compulsory-optional