Course detail

Interconnection and Assembly Technology

FEKT-MPC-MOTAcad. year: 2020/2021

Subject deals with nterconnection technology and assembly techniques with following topics.
Interconnection technology, methods, properties. Levels of interconnection. Organic and inorganic substrates. Technology steps in interconnection structures production. High density interconnection (HDI). Microvia.
Technology of assembled interconnection structures. Surface Mount Technology (SMT). Types of package and basic of manipulation. Solder pastes, adhesives, fluxes and their application. Adhesives and technology of adhesive joint. Soldering processes and technology of soldering and cleaning. Strategy of testing. Defects in interconnection structures and their causes.
Optimization of production process.

Language of instruction


Number of ECTS credits


Mode of study

Not applicable.

Learning outcomes of the course unit

Students will be able to:
 define basic principles from assembly and inteconnection techniques, explain levels of interconnection
 describe sorts and explain methods of assembled joint realisation. Describe and explain factors influencing quality of assembled joint
 explain technology procedure of multilayer PCB with microvia. Describe and explain individual production step
 explain mechanism of adhesion joint, properties and types of physically hardened and chemically cured adhesives
 explain mechanism of solder joint, solder joint requirements, soldering techniques, diferences between tin/lead and lead free solder joint. Explain chemistry and cleaning techniques of PCBś and assembled PCBś
 technology analysis of PCB - student is able to choose compatible technology process of PCB realisation, process of components assembly and PCB material


The subject knowledge on the Bachelor´s degree level is requested.


Not applicable.

Planned learning activities and teaching methods

Teachning methods include lectures, practical laboratories and excursions.Lectures are based on Power Point presentation with videos. Education is guided with practically oriented questions especially in laboratories that are oriented to topics for practical application Course is taking advantage of e-learning (Moodle) system.

Assesment methods and criteria linked to learning outcomes

Evaluation of laboratory works - max 15 points, test - max 25 points, final written examination - max 50 points, oral final examination - max 10 points. Written and oral part of final examination are duty. Progress to oral part of final examination is only after receiving min 25 points from written part of final examination. Oral part of final examination is passed with min 4 points.
Examination is oriented to evaluation of received knowledges from interconnection and assembly technology topics and in practical orientation technology analysis of real assembled PCB. Student in this analysis demonstrates ability to choose conforming technology procedure of components assembly and of PCB realisation (step by step) including guestions of applied material.
Requirements for completion of a course are specified by a regulation issued by the lecturer responsible for the course and updated for every year.

Course curriculum

1. Interconnection techniques, methods, properties. Levels of interconnection. Base materials for Printed Circuit Boards (PCBś) production, organic, inorganic, reinforcements, resins, copper clad materials. Base materials organic rigid, flexible, rigid/flexible, semiflexible. Properties: electrical, mechanical, thermal, chemical. Standard ČSN EN 61249 – xx – xx. Organic base materials, properties. Base materials inorganic, comparison with organic. Requirements for base materials, latest trends and development in base materials area. MID.
2. Interconnection structures, types. Subtractive, semiaditive and aditive methods of production interconnecton structures. PCBś production - main orientation. Base steps in PCBś production. Technology procedure of single, double and multilayer PCB.
3. Interconnection structures with microvia, SBU methods. PCBś assembly - through hole technology (THT) and surface mount technology (SMT), mixed. Technology procedures. Latest trends in SMT.
4. "Chemistry in assembly" and correct application in process /solder paste, solder alloy, flux, adhesive, conformal coating, packaging material/
5. Interconnection 1-st level, bonding techniques, packaging. (Szendiuch/Starý 2 hrs)
6. Surface mount devices (SMDś), packages, properties, type of leads, IC packages, passive components, elektromechanical devices, BGA packages, construction. (Šandera) (2 hrs.)
7. Adhesives I.
8. Adhesives II Application techniques, screen/stencil printing, dispensing/. Basic for quality in printing, factors.
9. Soldering, solder joint, requirements for solder joint. Soldered joint vs. welded joint vs. joint realised with adhesive - comparison. Methods of soldering. Requirements for quality of placement and soldering acc. to IPC A 610 rev. E.
10. Solder joint reliability. Lead free vs. lead soldering. Wave soldering (mass), nitrogen atmosphere infuence. Manual soldering, principles, soldering tips maintenance. Reflow soldering, methods, forced convection and nitrogen atmosphere influence.Temperature profile measurememts. Thermal management of PCB.
11. Cleaning techniques. Cleaning medias, microemulsion. PCB contamination, measuring. Flux residues and defects.
12. Mechanically realised connections, types, properties.
13. Quality control, methods. Testing of assembled and non-assembled PCBś. Automatic Optical Inspection (AOI). SPI. Statistical tools for quality testing and improvement.

Work placements

Not applicable.


The aim of the subject is to make students familiar with the problems of Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs). Knowlodges espec. from SMT, solder and adhesive joint realisation will be on higher level. Students will have practically closer view for individul factors in each operation and their influence for production process quality.

Specification of controlled education, way of implementation and compensation for absences

The content and forms of instruction in the evaluated course are specified by a regulation issued by the lecturer responsible for the course and updated for every academic year.

Recommended optional programme components

Not applicable.

Prerequisites and corequisites

Not applicable.

Basic literature

Starý, J., Zatloukal, M.: MMOT - Montážní a propojovací technologie, skripta verze 1.1., 2014 (CS)
Lea, C.:A Scientific Guide to Surface Mount Technology, Electrochemical Publications Ltd, GB 1998 (EN)
Wassink, R. J. K.:Manufacturing Techniques for Surface Mounted Assemblies,Electrochemical Publications Ltd, GB 1995 (EN)
Normy ANSI/IPC-A-610 rev. E,The Institute for Electronic and Packaging Electronic Circuits, USA, ANSI/IPC-CM-770C a ANSI/IPC-SM-782 a normy ČSN EN dle doporučení (CS)
Starý,J.,Šandera,J.,Kahle P.:Plošné spoje a povrchová montáž, PC DIR-REAL Brno, 1999 (CS)

Recommended reading

Hwang, J., S.:Environment-Friendly Electronics: Lead Free Technology, Electrochemical Publications Limited 2001, ISBN 0 901150 401 (EN)

Classification of course in study plans

  • Programme MPC-EVM Master's, 1. year of study, winter semester, compulsory
  • Programme MPC-MEL Master's, 1. year of study, winter semester, compulsory-optional

Type of course unit



26 hours, optionally

Teacher / Lecturer


Organic substrates, reinforcement and resin, metal glad base material. Inorganic substrates
Organic base materials, electrical, mechanical and temperature properties. Trends in base materialsand requiremence. Inorganic base materials, their properties and comparison with organic ones.
Interconnection structures, sorting. Subtractive, semiadditive and additive methods. Trends
Technology procedures of single-layer, double layer and multi-layer PCB, Molded interconnect devices (MID). Microvia. Technology possibilities and trend.
Through Hole Technology (THT), Surface Mounted Technology (SMT) and combined THT and SMT. Technology procedures. Trend in SMT.
Solder pastes. solder alloys, adhesives, fluxes, conformal coatings and encapsulants
Application technology /screen and stencil printing, dispense/. Population of SMD, pick and place machines, principles, methods of component centering.
Surface Mounted Devices (SMD), properties and packaging, component leads, IC packages, passive components, electromechanical devices, Ball Grid Array (BGA), construction.
Soldering, methds of soldering, solder joint and solder joint reliability. Vawe soldering techniques, nitrogen atmosphere influence. Manual soldering, principles. <>Reflow soldering, methods, forced concection and nitrogen atmosphere influence. Temperature profiling. Strategy of testing. Testing of assembled and non assembled PCB. Quality control. Methods.
PCB repairs, contact and contactless methods for components disassembly and assembly. Principles and techniques for repairing. Requirements for PCB according třo IPC and Czech standards, Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)
Reliability in assembly process ond main factors.
Defects in interconnection structures and their causes.

Laboratory exercise

8 hours, compulsory

Teacher / Lecturer


Prototype PCB production process - BUNGARD/PROTOCAD line
Laboratory No1:
o base materials, PCB production 2 layers PCB, multilayer PCB, HDI, PCB assemby
o chemistry. PCB cleaning. Ionic contamination measurement.
Laboratory No2: Thermal capacity of SMD and influence on temperature profile
o temperature profile during reflow soldering in in-line reflow oven
o temperature response of stacked structures FR4/FR4, Al2O3/FR4
o workstation PACE TF 2700 - deassy and assy of SMD.
Laboratory No3: Wetting balance test method and wettability tests od THT/SMD leads. Surface treatment influence. Preparing microsection - part1.
Laboratory No4: Preparing microsection - part2., microsection evaluation with stereomicroscope. Defects of PCB and causes.