Introduction to Medical Materials and their Applications
FCH-BCT_UNAcad. year: 2018/2019
The subject is the introduction to principles and medically relevant knowledge of nanotechnology, and the chemistry of modern materials for medical application. The students are familiarized with the structural principles of organs, tissues and cells and the principles of their regulation. The biological reactions of cells and tissues to various types of material and systems built of these materials are discussed. The health risks of materials and their nanoforms are pointed out. The above mentioned is demonstrated on examples of targeted distribution of biologically active materials and their directed releasing, regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and sensors utilisable in diagnostics and medicine. The practical part and comprehensibility are stressed at the introductory level.
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The student acquires basic knowledge of modern materials and applications prepared from these materials for medicine in the nanotechnology field and their interaction with the organism and various tissues or cells. The student is capable of understanding the principle of applications of such systems, materials and technologies for medical purposes. Another study output is a simple literary recherche picked by individual students on topics covered during the lectures.
The student must already possess basic knowledge of anorganic and organic chemistry and selected parts of physical chemistry, cell biology and physiology (ideally all at the level of secondary school).
Recommended optional programme components
Recommended or required reading
Goodsell D.S.: Bionanotechnology. Wiley-Liss, Hoboken 2004 (CS)
Hošek J.: Úvod do nanotechnologie. ČVUT, Praha 2010 (CS)
Kvasničková A.: Aplikace nanotechnologie v potravinářství. MZe, Praha 2009 (www.nanotechnologie.cz) (CS)
Planned learning activities and teaching methods
The course uses teaching methods in form of Lecture - 2 teaching hours per week. The e-learning system (LMS Moodle) is available to teachers and students.
Assesment methods and criteria linked to learning outcomes
The term is concluded by writing a test focusing on the topics dealt with during the lectures. The successful conclusion of the subject requires the resulting grade A-E of the evaluation scale.
Language of instruction
The subject introduces the principles and medically relevant knowledge of natotechnologies, and the chemistry of modern materials in medical applications. The following topics are discussed:
- Introduction to nanobiotechnology: explanation of terms nanotechnology, biotechnology, nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. Where they complement each other, where they overlap, examples of real medical applications.
- Biological systems: from organism to cell, cells and tissues, stem cells, cell morphology, cell cycle, cell regulation and signalling, receptors, CD 44 receptor, extracellular matrix, collagen, elastin, proteoglycans and glycoproteins, fibronectin, laminin, integrins, health risks of nanotechnologies.
- Targeted distribution and directed release of biologically active materials: targeted distribution and directed release – explanation of the terms, what the first carriers brought and what we expect of the modern carriers, what an ideal carrier should be like, carriers‘ separation, micelles and liposomes, nanoparticles, dendrimers, nanotubes, microbubles, nano and microfibers, combined carrier systems, theranostics, directed release of active material from the carrier, the release of active material by electromagnetic radiation, the release of active material by magnetic field, the release of active material by ultrasound, the release of active material by temperature or pH change, carriers reacting to biological stimuli, carriers containing an enzyme substrate in their structure, carriers reacting to substrate in vicinity, barriers between tissues and how to overcome them, therapeutic window, therapeutic index, targeted transport of active material in the cell, ways of releasing active material in the cell.
- Systems boosting wound healing: various types and states of wounds, acute, chronic and complicated wounds, infected wounds, biofilm, wound healing, homeostasis and coagulation phase, inflammation phase, immunity system, proliferative phase, extracellular matrix and hyaluronan, remodeling phase, necrotic tissue removal, larva therapy, moist healing and hyaluronan, exuding wounds‘ covers, preparations on basis of honey, preparations on basis of glucans, cover for granulating wound, liquid and solid types of wound covers, fistula, epipleural abscess, other types of wound covers, other ways of wound healing.
- Regenerative medicine: tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, healing and regeneration, stem cells, from stem cell to mature cell, embryology, how stem cells recognize what to become, cell signalling, cell interactions, sources of stem cells, therapeutic cloning, induced pluripotent stem cells, mezenchymal stem cells, bone marrow transplantation.
- Tissue engineering: scaffolds and cells, hydrogel based scaffolds, spongei based scaffolds, nano and microfiber based scaffolds, scaffold materials, tissue engineering and practical examples, tissue engineering of joint cartilage, materials for synovial fluid viscosupplementation.
- Biosensors and medicine: what are sensors and biosensors, basic characteristics of sensors, types of biosensors, glucose sensor, Clark oxygen electrode, biosensor separation on the basis of induced reaction principles, piezoelectrical, optical, interferometric, grid sensor, resonance mirror, SPR sensors, evanescence field, surface plasmon, TIRF sensors, sensors based on Raman diffusion, enzyme electrodes, aptamers.
This subject intends to introduce students to the world of modern materials, their application in medically utilisable systems at nano and nanobiotechnological levels and their interactions with biological systems as shown on examples of medical applications.
Specification of controlled education, way of implementation and compensation for absences
Presence at lectures.
Type of course unit
26 hours, optionally
Teacher / Lecturer