Technological Units for Processing Industry
FSI-KS2Acad. year: 2017/2018
The course of “Technological Units for Process Industry” extends the knowledge from previous partial subjects of the specialization, especially thermodynamics engineering. The course is divided into two main parts. The first part extends the students’ knowledge of thermodynamic regularities for equilibrium in systems where chemical reactions take place. In the first part kinetic factors influencing the behaviour of processes in different types of reactors will be analysed. The approach to balancing of unsteady technological systems includes also the mass and heat accumulation.The approach to design of reaction knot of sample technologies using kinetic model of alternative reactor types will be shown.¨In the second part of the course, systematic survey of the most important industrial technologies (industry of complex crude-oil treatment and natural gas processing, chemical and petrochemical industry, cement and lime industry) and especially technology for thermal treatment of communal and industrial wastes will be presented.
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Students will be able to apply their knowledge of regularities for conceptual design of technological process and make qualified decisions between more possible solutions. The course objective is familiarize the students with the most important process plants, methodology of process plant creation, its balancing and complex evaluation of its suitability for given intention.
Basic knowledge of thermomechanics and thermodynamics, especially computation of thermal effects of chemical and physical processes. Knowledge of hydraulic and diffusive processes.
Recommended optional programme components
Recommended or required reading
Felder R., M., Rosseau, R.,W., Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes, third edition, 2005, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken–NJ (USA), ISBN 0-471-68757-X (EN)
Perry, J.: Chemical Engineers´ Handbook, Mc Graw Hill, New York, 1997
Kizlink, J.: Technologie chemických látek I. a II. díl, FCH, VUT Brno, 2001
Santoleri J., J., Reynolds J. and Theodore L., Introduction to Hazardous Waste Incineration“, Second Edition, 2000, John Wiley & Sons, New York, ISBN 0-471-011790-6 (EN)
Shackley, S., Gough, C., Carbon Capture and its Storage, An Integrated Assessment, 2006, Ashgate Publishing Ltd, Aldershot, UK, ISBN:0 7546 4499 5 (EN)
Babinec, F.: Aplikovaná fyzikální chemie,VUT Brno, 1981
Riazi, M.R., Characterization and properties of petroleum fractions. ASTM International, 1st edition, West Conshohocken, PA (USA),.2005, ISBN 407-0-8031-3361-8 (EN)
Planned learning activities and teaching methods
The course is taught through lectures explaining the basic principles and theory of the discipline. Exercises are focused on practical topics presented in lectures. In the exercises the students are using computers and they solve problems connected with the semestral paper.
Assesment methods and criteria linked to learning outcomes
To gain the credit, a semestral paper has to be submitted. The topic of the paper is given during the semester and the main tasks of the paper are continually discussed during exercises. The credit is also granted upon regular attendance on exercises and the students’ performance during exercises that prove that they have gained basic knowledge of the course during the semester and successfully written final test proving knowledge obtained from the course. The overall evaluation also considers the results of tests written during the semester and the level of the semestral paper. The results of semester papers are presented in the form of short presentations prepared by students. The exam consists of a written and an oral part. In the written part, the student has to prove the ability to solve individually three given computation tasks. During the oral exam, the student will explain the solution of the computation and prove knowledge of the lectures’ topics. The overall evaluation also considers the results of tests written during the semester and the level of the semestral paper.
Language of instruction
1. Introduction, the position of chemical industry in the CR and the raw material basis 2. Basic processes of the crude oil treatment and petrochemical industry 3. Basic processes in the other branches of chemical industry (food, pharmaceutical,cement industry, etc.) 4. Design principles of chosen equipments of chemical industry 5. Introduction into the reaction kinetics and reactor design
The course objective is to familiarize the students with the most important process plants, methodology of process plant creation, its balancing and complex evaluation of its suitability for given intention. Students will be able to apply the knowledge of physical and chemical regularities to the conceptual design of a manufacturing line and make a qualified decision between more possible solutions. The important process plants are connected with series of examples and calculation solutions of concrete industrial applications. It enables to demonstrate the issues of plants creation and complex evaluation of plants conception and possibilities, together with evaluation of individual equipment and its influence on the plant’s characteristics.
Specification of controlled education, way of implementation and compensation for absences
During the course there are 13 lectures (2 hours) and 13 exercises (2 hours). The supporting text of lectures in electronic form is available. The attendance at lectures is recommended. The exercises are carried on in given classroom and follow the topics of the lectures. The attendance at seminars is compulsory and checked.
Type of course unit
26 hours, optionally
Teacher / Lecturer
1) Principles of technological system balancing at steady and unsteady working conditions.
2) Thermodynamic and kinetic factors affecting the results of reactions.
3) Basic types of reactors. Basic balance equations for batch reactors, tubular reactors and ideal mixed reactors with continual flows.
4) The reaction rate and factors affecting the reaction rate. The performance of various types of chemical reactors.
5) Basic processes of natural gas utilization and chemical treatment. Reaction conditions and principles of design of equipment of natural gas steam reforming process for hydrogen manufacture.
6) Ammonia and fertilizer production, process conditions and industrial equipment.
7) Crude oil production and principal processes of crude oil treatment (distillation, hydrotreating).
8) Basic processes in secondary and depth crude oil treatment (hydrocracking, catalytic cracking, partial oxidation, delayed coking, etc.). Principles for heavy naphtha catalytic reforming process design.
9) Physical properties of crude oil fractions, their determination on the basis of distillation analysis.
10) Basic processes of the petrochemical industry, especially the naphtha pyrolysis for ethylene and propylene production. Products of pyrolysis as a source for plastics manufacture.
11) Technology and equipment for thermal treatment of communal and industrial wastes. Technology of waste gases treatment.
12) Waste water treatment and technology of waste water sludge treatment.
13) Technology and industrial plants for cement and lime manufacture.
26 hours, compulsory
Teacher / Lecturer
) Process plant balance at steady state (crystallization).
2) Process plant balance at unsteady state. Calculation of the concentration and temperature changes during the time in the unsteady systems.
3) Mass and energetic balance of the main equipment of natural gas steam reforming technology for hydrogen production (part of methane conversion, primary reformer and reactor).
4) Mass and energetic balance of the main equipment of natural gas steam reforming technology for hydrogen production (shift gas reactor for CO conversion and produced gas separation).
5) Dimensioning of compressor and fans for natural gas, air and flue gas transportation (in connection to the analyzed natural gas steam reforming technology).
6) Determination of the main physical and transporting properties of the hydrocarbons and their mixtures.
7) Balance the VENTURI scrubber for gas cleaning in equipment for waste incineration.
8) Calculation of the adiabatic warming-up and degree of conversion for the process of hydrocarbons catalytic oxidation.
9) Hydraulic design of catalytic reactors with axial and radial fluid flow.
10) Application of the oxygen balance for flue-gas flow rate calculation.
11) Marking of measuring and controlling devices on a technological scheme.
12) Demonstration of gas sampling during emission measurement with respect to the isokinetic principle.